Sunday, April 29, 2018

Mughal Empire Humayun 1530 -1556

Humayun (1530 -1556)
Born in 1508;
Had 4 brothers –
1. Mirza Suleman (Badakshan)
2. Kamarn (Kabul and Qandhar) outside India,
3. Askari in Punjab and Hindal in Sambal and
4. Alwar respectively;
The Mughal army consisted of Chagatai, Uzbek Mughal, Persian, Afghan and Hindustani
people;
Humayun's period can be divided into 4 phases:-
(i) Struggle-(1530-1540);
(ii) Exile-(1540-1545);
(iii) Return - (1545-1554);
(iv) Restoration - (1554-1556);
STRUGGLE (1530-1540)
He defeated the Afghans in the battle of Ghhagra;
In August, 1533, he laid the foundation of a new city in Delhi called DIN PANAH
(at the site of old Indraprastha). It was completed in 9 months;
In July 1534, Md. Zaman Mirza and Md. Sultan Mirza revolted;
In 1531 Bhadur Shah who became active in Malwa annexed it. He then captured Raisen,
Ranthambore, Chan-deri, Bhilsa and in January, 1533, Chittor. This alarmed Humayun'
By Mach, 1533, Bahadur captured Ajmer and Nagaur;
In November, 1534, Humayun moved from Agra to Gwalior and camped at Chittor but
Bahadur Shah did not come and he allowed Humayun to capture Chittor;
Rumi Khan was the master gunner of Bhadur Shah;
On 25th April, 1534, Bahadur Shah was defeated and he fled to Mandu'
On 13th June 1535, he captured Champaner;
He appointed Mirza Askari as the viceroy of Gujarat, made Ahmedabad his headquarters and
Hindu Begh was his advisor;
His success did not last long, as Askari did not prove to be effective. Gujarat was recaptured
by Malu Khan, governor of Bahadur Shah;
In 1533 - 36, Humayun remained in Gujarat, which proved to be blunder for him;
Humayun returned to Agra in August., 1536;
In July, 1537, he moved to Chunar, Rumi Khan now worked for him and Chunar was captured;
On the way to Gaur, Sher Shah cut off the communications in the Jharkhand area and the communication was lost between Mirza Hindal and Humayun;
His brothers Mirza Kamran was selfish, Yadgar Nasir Mirza incapable and Hindal was a rebel;
By the end of March 1539, Humayun set out from Bengal leaving Jahangir Ali Begh at Gaur;
On 26th June, 1539, the Mughal army was defeated;
In 1540, he was again defeated by Sher Shah at Kannauj because of the following:-
1. rebel of Hindal at Agra;
2. no help from the rulers of Malwa and Sindh;
3. the communication was cut of and no re-enforcement took place;
Humayun was compelled to leave India and his brother did not help him;
His plan to go to Badakshan through Kabul failed because of opposition from Kamaran;
Haidar Mirza made a suggestion to take shelter in Punjab Hills;
Peace negotiations with Sher Shah failed;
He offered Agra and Delhi to Sher Shah and retain Punjab to himself, but Sher Shahiefused;
Due to pressure from the Afghan he had to leave Lahore in October, 1540;
Finally on 26th January., 1541, he reached Sindh and incamped at Rohri - domain of Shah
Hussain Arghun;
Exile (1540 -1545)
Akbar was born on 15th October, at Amarkot;
Rana Virshal of Amarkot gave him shelter;
Wife of Humayun was Hamida Benu Begum;
Return (1545-1554)
After Humayun set out from his expedition in Sindh, along with 300 camels (mostly wild)
and 2000 loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar after crossing the Indus
River on 11 July 1543 along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire and overthrow
the Suri dynasty.
Among the tribes that had sworn allegiance to Humayun were the Magsi, Rind and many
others.
In Kamran Mirza's territory, Hindal Mirza had been placed under house arrest in Kabul after
refusing to have the Khutba recited in Kamran Mirza's name.
His other brother Askari Mirza was now ordered to gather an army and march on Humayun.
When Humayun received word of the approaching hostile army he decided against facing
them, and instead sought refuge elsewhere.
Akbar was left behind in camp close to Kandahar for, as it was December it would have been
too cold and dangerous to include the 14-month-old toddler in the forthcoming march
through the dangerous and snowy mountains of the Hindu Kush.
Askari Mirza found Akbar in the camp, and embraced him, and allowed his own wife to
parent him, she apparently started treating him as her own.
Once again Humayun turned toward Kandahar where his brother Kamran Mirza was in
power, but he received no help and had to seek refuge with the Shah of Persia.
Restoration (1545 -1556)
Humayun appointed Bairam Khan to the government of Qandhar and set out for Kabul;
He was helped by Mirza Hindal and Mirza Kamarn was forced to flee;
Humayun entered Kabul on 18th November, 1546, without any opposition;
In 1546, he campaigned Badakshan;
In 1549, he defeated Balkh and Uzbek;
In 1550, he again marched from Kabul:
On 25th December, 1554, he reached Peshawar and was joined by Bairam Khan;
In 1555, he defeated Machiwara (Ludhinana);
On 23rd July, 1555, he reentered Delhi;
Atga Khan, who took Hissar, had to surrendered;
On 24th January, 1556, he died leaving Bairam Khan as defacto;
The most disastrous campaign was Bengal
He died in Panch Mahal;
He wore black dress on Saturdays, yellow on Sundays and white on Mondays;

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