Friday, August 10, 2018

Akbar

Meaning of the Name Akbar is The Great.
3rd Mughal Emperor.
Greatest among the Mughal Emperors.
One of the greatest kings of India.
Akbar 1556 - 1605
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu Begam.
Akbar was born at Amarkot in 1542. Amarkot was a palace of a Hindu King named Rana Virsal Prasad.
 Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur when he was 14 years old.
 Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya.
Hemu, the PM of Muhammad Shah Adil of Bengal, was defeated. Hemu is considered the last Hindu
king of Delhi.
Conquered Malwa in 1561 defeating Baz Bahadur.
Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.
Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the army.
Mansabdar meant holder of a rank. Mansabdars were entrusted with the task of maintaining some army. In lieu of their salary a piece of land was given to them. The more trusted will be entrusted with a bigger rank / number of troops he should maintain.

Abu’l – Fazl, the Wazir of Akbar and author of the Akbamama an account of Akbar’s reign.
 Faizi was historian Abul Fazl’s brother in Akbar’s court. He was a poet composing in Persian and an all – round genius.

Tansen, believed to be one of the greatest musician of all times, was born in a Hindu family
in Gwalior.
Raja Birbal, alias Mahesh Das, was a courtier in the administration of Akbar.
 Raja Todar Mal was Akbar’s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the
kingdom. The revenue system introduced by Raja Todar Mal is known as 'Bandobasth system', largely inspired by Sharshah's Rytwari system / Sher Shah's revenue system.
Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha raja of Amber. He was a mansabdar and a trusted general
of Akbar.
Abdul Rahim Khan – e – Khana was a poet and the son of Akbar’s trusted caretaker, Bairam Khan.
After Bairam Khan was murdered, Bairan Khan’s wife became the second wife of Akbar, which
made Abdul Rahim Khan – e Khan his stepson.
 Faqir Aziao Din was one of Akbar’s chief advisors.
 Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbar’s chief advisors.

Ibadat Khana - Akbar's prayer hall. Here Akbar participated in religious discussion with the representatives of various religions.
Infalliable Decree - was issued by Akbar in 1579.
Akbar introduced a new religion named 'Din - e - Ilahi' in the year 1582.
This new religion was based on the principles of universal brotherhood and world peace. Wahadat ul wazood and Sul - i - Kul.
 

Reasons for Akbar's liberal religious outlook.
1. Akbar was born in a Hindu palace and he was raised by them for some years.
2. Akbar was a Sunni Muslim. Bairam Khan, Akbar's guardian was a Shia Muslim.
3. Akbar was the devotee of famous sufi saint, Shaik Salim Chisti. Chisti sufi order was a liberal one.
4. Most of Akbar's friends and wives were Hindus. Man Singh. Birbal / Mahesh Das. Raja Todar mal.
5. Abul Faizi, Abul Fazl were the followers of Sufism. They were Akbar's close associates.



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Humayun

Humayun (1530 – 40 and 1555 – 56)
Meaning of his name. Humayun means Lucky. Lucky person.
Humayun - 2nd Mughal Emperor.
 He was born to Mahim Begam and Babur.
 Defeated the Afghan forces at Daurah in 1532.
 He was attacked by Sher Shah at Chausa (Battle of Chausa) in 1539, but escaped. Here Humayun was saved by Nizam, a water carrier (saqqa).  But in the Battle of Kannauj (also called Battle of
Bilgram) in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah and had to flee.
 Humayun Passed nearly 15 years (1540 – 1555) in exile.
Humayun had the chance to return in 1555. Sher Shah, the victor of Kannauj, died in 1545. He was succeeded by his son Islam Shah, who ruled up to 1553. He was succeeded by Muhammad Adil Shah.
 Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him in this.
 Humayun died in 1556, due to a fall from his library building stairs (Sher Mandal, Delhi) seven months after he
captured Delhi. It is said about him that “Humayun tumbled through life and he tumbled out of it”.
 Gulbadan Begum, his half – sister, wrote 'Humayun– nama'.

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Babur

Babar  (1526 – 1530) :
Meaning of the name Babur is Tiger.
Founder of Mughal Empire.
1st Mughal Emperor Babur.
Babur Was a descended of Timur on his father’s side and Chengiz Khan on his mother’s side
Originally ruledover Ferghana (Afghanistan). He became the Sultan at the early age of 12, when his
father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died.
He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodhi (Subedar of Punjab), Alam Khan (uncle of
Ibrahim Lodhi) and Rana Sanga.
Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.
Defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanua in 1527.
Defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in 1528.
Defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in 1529.
Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh, Kabul.

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Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire

Imperial Mughals
Babur - Details
Humayun- Details
Akbar- Details
Jahangir- Details
Shah Jahan- Details
Aurangazeb- Details

Later Mughals

Ala ud din Ahmad


Ala ud din Ahmad 1436 - 1458
Ala ud din Ahmad was a Bahamani Sultan.

After the death of Ahmad Shah Vali his son Ala ud din Ahmad succeeded to the throne. On Ahmad Shah Vali tomb he build a magnificent dome and the wall of the dome was decorated with floral and calligraphic designs. An interesting fact about the tomb was every year a fair is conducted near it in honour of the vali, by the priests of Lingayat sect.

Invaded on the Raja of Samgameshwar. The defeated Sangameshwar offered his most beautiful daughter in marriage to sultan. The lady is known to history as Pari-Chehra / Ziba Chehra (Fairy Face). She became the sultan's favourite Queen. Sultan's first queen's father Nasir Khan of Kandesh became hostile against Alauddin Ahmad.
His brother in law Jalal Khan declared himself as the lord of Telinagana and took shelter in the fortress of Nalgonda. Ala ud din Ahmad himself marched towards the fortress of Nalgonda. He sent his son Sikander to secure the help of Sulthan Muhammad Khilji of Malwa.


King is the shadow of the God on the earth. But only Mujahid Shah Bahamani (1375 - 78) claimed this distinction.

Bahaman Shah - Founder - acknowledged the theoretical supremacy of the Abbasi Caliphat. He had black canopy over his throne in the Abbasid Fashion. On his coins he styled himself as "right hand man of the Caliphate".

Ahmad Shah Bahamani


Bidar Period - 1422 - 1538
Ahmad Shah Bahamani 1422 - 36

Ahmad Shah Bahamani was famous in history as vali / saint. 
Ahmad Shah Vali shifted capital from Gulbarga to Bidar around 1425.

Ahmad Shah Vali invaded on Vijayanagara and defeated Devaraya II. First Raja of Warangal was with Devaraya II but soon he left him. Later he paid price for his mistake. Ahmad Shah vali attacked on Warangal and annexed it in 1425.

Occupied Malva (M.P. and Rajasthan)and some part of Gujarath. 

Taj-ud-din Firuz Shah


Taj-ud-din Firuz Shah 1397-1422
Bahamani Sultan Taj-ud-din Firuz Shah had an eventful  reign of 25 years. 3 distinct campaigns were carried on during his reign on Vijayanagara in 1398, 1406 and 1417.

Campaign against the Gond Raja Narsing Rai of Kherla, near Betul in Madhya Pradesh. Narsing Rai was defeated. Firuz shah did not defeat the Vijaya Nagara.

In south Vemas and Velamas were two rival factions. Vemas were supported by Vijaya Nagara and Velamas by Bahamanis. On the banks of river Krishna Bahamani troops were defeated by Vijaya Nagara. Firuz had to submit Kherla. Inspite of the defeat Firuz again attacked on Telingana. Kataya Vema's lieutenant, Allada Reddy, defeated the Bahamani Commander, Ali Khan.

Devaraya - I fell in love with a gold smith's daughter who lives in Mudgal. Unable to wed her  the frustrated Devaraya attacked on the villages of Mudgal. Due to this provocation Feruz Shah invaded on Vijaya Nagara. Devaraya was defeated. As a tribute, Deva Raya I had to give one of his daughters in marriage to the Feruz Shah's prince.

Third Campaign on Vijaya Nagara 1417-1420
Firuz tried to capture the fort of Panagal (Mahabub Nagar). Devaraya I defeated Firuz and the Raichur doab remained with Vijaya Nagara.


The defeated weighted so much on Firuz's mind. Added to that Quaza Gisu Daraz, a saint openly declared that the Sultan's brother, Ahmad, Should be the next ruler instead of Hasan, the son of Firuz. Ahamd seized the fort. Realising the situation Firuz offered the throne to his brother, Ahmad.
On September 22, 1422 Ahmad Ascended the throne. Firuz died on Oct - 2.

Firuz was an enlightened ruler.
Orthodox Sunni. Not a rigid Muslim.
He delighted in holding leaned discources with philosophers, poets and historians.
built observatory at Daulatabad.
Encouraged the pursuit of Astrologers.
Constructed a new city Firuzabad on the banks of river Bhima. He occassionally used it as his capital.
The two pricipal ports of the kingdom Chaul and Dabhol attracted ships from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
Accomplished linguist and a good calligrapher. He used to copy 16 pages of Quran every 4 days.
Feruz Shah collected large harem consisting of women of many nationalities and it was his boast that he could speak to each of them in her own tongue.