Friday, October 28, 2016


Subhadrangi - Mother of Ashoka. According to 'Ashoka Vadana', Srilankan text.
According to 'Vamsatha Pakaasini', 'Dharma' is the name of Ashoka's mother.


Dharma -
1. Just. Related to moral values, accepted customs, traditions, justice.
2. Is a name. Mauryan Emperor Ashoka's mother name is Dharma. (According to 'Vamsatha Pakaasini', a Srilankan text.). According to 'Vamsatha Pakaasini', 'Dharma' is the name of Ashoka's mother.

City administration during Maurya Period as suggested by Kautilya in ArthaShastra

City / Municipal Administration during Mauryan Period
Administration as suggested by Kautilya in his Arthashastra.
These officers are equal to present day Principal Secretaries.

Akaradhyaksha -  Incharge of mining department.
Kanyadhyaksha - Mining
Akshapaladhyaksha - Accounts
Dhandanaagaradhyaksha -
Thattyadhyadhyaksha - Incharge of infantry.
Ashwadhyaksha - Horses
Hasthyadhyaksha - Elephants
Naavadhyaksha - Ships
Aayudhaagaaradhyaksha - Artillery
Devathadhyaksha - Temples
Go adhyaksha - Cows.
Kostagara adhyaksha - Whare houses and granaries.
Kupya adhyaksha - Incharge of forests.
Ganika adhyaksha - Incharge of brothel houses.
Thyuthaadhyaksha - Gambling Houses.
Vivithadyaksha - Incharge of Pasture Lands.
Koshadhyaksha - Incharge of Treasury.
Lakshanandhyaksha - Tankasalaadhyaksha
Lavanaadhyaksha - Incharge  of salt reaches.
Maanaadhyaksha - Land Survey and Keeper of times
Madradhyaksha - Incharge of passport department.
Pandyadhyaksha - State Trade and Commerce
Pauthvadhyaksha - Weights and measures
Samsthadhyaksha - Private trade and commerce
Naagavanaadhyaksha - Incharge of Elephants in forest zone.
Sitadhyaksha - Incharge of Agriculture
Sulkadhyaksha - Incharge of Customes duties.
Suradhyaksha - Incharge of Excise department.
Sutradhyaksha - Incharge of Textile Industry.
Sunaadhyasksha - Incharge of Slaughter houses.
Suvarnadhyaksha - Incharge of Gold and Jewellery.
Lohaadhyaksha - Incharge of Metal Industry.
Pattanaadhyaksha - Cities with docking facilities.

Minor Pillar Edicts of Ashoka

Minor Pillar Edicts of Ashoka
Minor Pillar Edicts
Sanchi - Saranath - Nigalisagar - Rumindai

Ashokan Pillars and the Capitols

Ashokan Pillars and the Capitols

Bull Capitol - Rampurva
Bull Capitol - Sravasti

Single Lion Capitol - Larianandan Garh
Single Lion Capitol - Lauria Araraj
Single Lion Capitol - Sankissa
Single Lion Capitol - Kapilavastu

Horse Capitol - Rumindai

Elephant Capitol - Sankissa
Elephant Capitol - Rajgir

Wheel Capitol - Sanchi

Saranatha Pillar and the details of its capitol -
Inverted Lotus, Ashoka Chakra and around that 4 animals Lion, Elephant, Horse,

Bull. (BHEL).
4 roaring lions and huge Ashoka chakra on thier shoulders.

Most of the Ashokan pillars are made of Red Sand Stone. For some pillars Buff

Coloured Sand Stone was used. Buff colour = Wheatish Colour. The stone was

brought from Chunar quaries, Uttar Pradesh and the pillars were carved out of them

at Taxila.

16 Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka and the places they were found

16 Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka were found at 8 places
Kalsi - Dehradun
Girnar - Gujarath
Sophara - Maharastra
Yerragudi - A.P.
Dhauli - Bhuvaneshwar
Jaugada - Ganjam
Manshera - North West Frontier Province.
Shabhajgarhi - North West Frontier Province.

Manshera and Shabhajgarhi are the ivillages and historic sites located in Mardan District in the North West Frontier Province of present day Pakistan.

Major Pillar Edicts of Ashoka and the Places they were found

Major Pillar edicts of Ashoka and the places they were found. Total 7 Major Pillar Edicts at 6 Places Allahabad - Kaushambi Delhi - Meerut Delhi - Topra Bihar - Laurianadangarh Bihar - Lauria Arayaj Bihar - Rampurva

Friday, October 21, 2016


Soma is a devine drink during Rg Vedic period.
Rg Vedic 'Chapters' are called 'Mandalas'.
There are total 10 Mandalas in Rg Veda.
Entire 9th Mandala is called 'Soma'.
Soma juice is made from the plant which is available on mount Mujavant, one of the Himalayan peaks.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Various types of Lands during Vedic Period

Vedic Period-Types of Land

Kshethra- Most fertile land.
Khilva- Waste Land. (Khilva kshethra)
Gopada sara- Pasture land. (Route taken by cows)
Apratihata- Jungle land.
Vasti- Habitable land (Basti= Vasti)

Sangam Age varaious types of Lands

Sangam age- Division of land

The land was divided into 5 types for easy administration.
1. Kurinji - hills and forest (hunting place)
2. Mullai - Pastures and lands (cattle breading place)
3. Marudam - Field and plantation(plough cultivation)
4. Niethal – Sea shore(fishing)
5. Palai - Dry land (plunder, warfare)

The story of Kohinoor | Koh-e-Noor

The Koh-e-Noor: is the most celebrated diamond of Golconda. Koh-e-Noor means ‘Diamond of the mountain of light’ was first given by Nadir Shah of Iran, when he first saw it in 1739 in Delhi. Koh-e-Noor in uncut form was given to Mir Jumla, the Golconda general who was responsible for the diamond mining in that area.
Mir Jumla presented it to Shah Jahan (Aurangazeb’s descendant Mohammad Shah) in 1739. Nadirshah sacked, looted and carried away Peacock throne and Koh-e-Noor to Iran. After Nadirshah murder at Kelat in 1747, his grandson Shah Rukh, in 1751, gave it to Ahmad Shah Durrani of Afghanistan as a reward for saving his life. From him in 1793, it passed to his eldest son Shah Zaman, on his deposition, the diamond was concealed in a mud wall of the prison and passed to his third brother Sultan Shuja. On his accession, he wore it in a bracelet. After his dethronement, families of Zaman and Shuja went to Lahore for help of Ranjith Singh, the ruler of Punjab. The latter demanded Koh-e-Noor for the help. It thus passed to Ranjith Singh. After his death, inherited by Dalip Singh and the Koh-e-Noor remained in the jewel chamber of the Lahore treasury. Following the II Sikh War in 1849, the East Indian Company, annexed Punjab. To recover the outstanding debts to the company, the Lahore treasury was seized, including the Koh-e-Noor diamond, Lord Dalhousie presented it to Queen Victoria on 3rd July 1850. The diamonds left India in 1850 never came back to India or Golconda.

History Study Material for competitive Exams
The Story of Koh-e-Noor
the story of Kohinoor

Governor Generals and Viceroys - Important Events During Their Reign

Governor Generals of India

Governor Generals and Viceroys
Lord Ripon   1880 – 1884                                          Read
Lord Dufferin 1884 – 1888                                        Read
Lord Lansdowne 1888 – 1894                                   Read
Lord Elgin II  1894 – 1899                                        Read
Lord Curzon 1899 – 1905                                          Read
Lord Minto II 1905 – 1910                                        Read
Lord Hardinge-II 1910 – 1916                                  Read
Lord Chelmsford 1916 – 1921                                   Read
Lord Reading  1921 – 1926                                        Read
Lord Irwin 1926 – 1931                                              Read
Lord Willington 1931 – 1936                                      Read
Lord Linlithgow 1936 – 1944                                     Read
Lord Wavell  1944 – 1947                                           Read
Lord Mountbatten Mar.1947 – Aug.1947                   Read
C.Rajagopala Chari 21 June 1948-25 Jan 1950           Read

C.Rajagopala Chari

C.Rajagopala Chari 21 June 1948-25 Jan 1950 
* Chakravarthula Raajagopaala Chari
• The first and the last Indian Viceroy of free India. Indian History modern India viceroys.