Sunday, September 25, 2016

abcd

adfsdf

Abbas Tyabji Indian Freedom Fighter

Abbas Tyabji was an Indian freedom fighter from Gujarat, who had served as the Chief Justice of the High court of Baroda. He was a key ally and supporter of Sardar Vallabhai Patel during the Kheda Satyagraha (1918) and Bardoli Satyagraha (1928). He was also a close supporter of Mahatma Gandhi during National Movement. In 1919-20, he was one of the members of committee appointed by Indian National Congress to review the charges against General Reginald Dyer for the Amritsar Massacre, which occurred during the fight for independence. He also one of the legend in Bombay trio, who played an important role in national movement from Bombay region. He died at Mussoorie.
Abbas Tyabji Indian Freedom Fighter
Year of birth: 1853,   date of death: 9th June, 1936


JUSTICE ABBAS TYABJI
Date of Birth: 1st February, 1854 and Date of Death: 9th May, 1936
            Abbas Tayabji was born on 1st February, 1854 in an aristocratic family of the Tayyabjis in Gujarat.  ‘There is no death to Great People… their sacrifice for the nation will make them live long.  He was the noblest soul… meeting him was a great opportunity’.  This was how Justice Abbas Tayabji was eulogized by Mahatma Gandhi.  Abbas travelled to England at a very young age for Education, where from he became Bar-at-Law in 1875 and returned to India in the same year.  He became a Judge in the Baroda High Court in 1893.  His meeting with Mahatma Gandhi in 1915 changed his life.  He became a very close associate of Gandhiji.  He led the Gujarat Political Council, which had taken up the Non-Cooperation movement prior to the Indian National Congress.  He had sacrificed his luxurious life in 1919 and took part in the national movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.  Even at the ripe old age of eighty years, he travelled all over Gujarat in a bullock cart for selling Khadi cloth and to promote use of Khadi.  He led the Bardoli Satyagraha successfully in 1928 and took the leadership of the National Movement as a ‘Dictator’, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested during the Dandi march.  He was arrested several times for leading the national movement.  But he did not care for his health and marched ahead with the freedom movement despite his old age and other difficulties.  Under the leadership of Tyabji in Gujarat, Mahatma Gandhi had successfully implemented several experiments in the national movement.  Several other movements like Non-cooperation movement, movement for boycotting the foreign goods, Anti-Liquor Movement Civil Disobedience Movement were initiated first in Gujarat successfully under the leadership of Abbas Tayabji, which was later extended to the whole of the country.  He was aptly praised as the ‘Gujarat Diamond’ by Gandhiji.  Justice Abbas Tyabji played a leading role in the Indian national movement with a strong determination to free Mother India from the yoke of British imperialism till he breathed his last on 9th May, 1936.

Aravind Ackroyd Gosh Indian Freedom fighter and philosopher

ARAVIND ACKROYD GHOSH:
Date of birth: 15th August, 1872   date of death: 5th December, 1950
            Aravind Ghosh was born at Calcutta. His father, Dr. Krishnadhan Ghosh, a civil medical officer in Bengal, added the middle name Ackroyd because a Miss Ackroyd, a visitor from England, was present at his birth.  His mother, Swarnalatha Devi, was the daughter of nationalist Rajnarayan Bose.  Aravind’s father attained his M.D. from the University of Aberdeen in England.  By the time Krishnadhan returned to India, he was so westernized that he vowed to bring his children up as Englishmen.
Aravinda and his brothers were admitted to a special school in Darjeeling, in 1877, which was meant only for English children.  For two years the boys were taught by Irish nuns of the Loretto Convent School.  In 1879, the children were taken to England.  The two elder boys were admitted to a school, while Aravinda, who was just seven years old, was left in the care of Rev. W.H. Drewett and his wife in Manchester.  The Drewetts were to tutor Aravinda.  Aravinda learned English and Latin from the Reverend, and history, geography, arithmetic and French from Mrs. Drewett.
Aravinda became fond of reading and made full use of the personal library of the Drewetts.  After five years of comfortable living in Manchester, when the boys moved to London, their remittances from Dr. Ghosh started dwindling.  Aravind continued to excel in his studies despite difficulties.  He carried away prizes for the classics-classical literature in particular.  He won the Butterworth prize for literature, the Bedford prize for history and a scholarship at St. Paul’s.  While in the King’s College at Cambridge, Aravind was awarded a senior classical scholarship of 80 pounds per annum, in addition to a stipend as a candidate of the Indian Civil Service.  Aravind passed the Classical Trios examination in the first class with distinction and passed in the open competition for the Indian Civil Service in 1890.  He cleared the periodical examination and the medical examination but failed to appear for the horse-riding test which was compulsory for entering the Indian Civil Service.  Aravind returned to India on January 1893 aboard the S.S. Carthage.  Just before Aravinda set foot in India, his father died of heart failure.  He was only 21 and did not even possess proper qualifications.  He accepted a post promised by Sayaji Rao Gaekwad of Baroda when he was in England, with a fixed salary of Rs. 200.  He was first appointed in the survey settlement department, and later in the department of stamp and revenue.  Often he served as the Gaekwad’s personal secretary and prepared the Gaekwad’s speeches and wrote the communiqu├ęs between Baroda State and the Indian Government.  In 1900, Aravind accepted the post of English at Baroda College and also taught French as a part-time professor.  Aravinda married Mrinalini, daughter of Bhupal Chanda Basu, in 1901.  Aravind was 29 years of old at the time of marriage while Mrinalini was only 14.
The two had very little time to spend with each other since Aravind lived in Baroda, and Mrinalini remained in Calcutta.  Aravinda deeply loved his wife and was always regular in writing letters to her.  His letters to her were published as a book called “Letters to Mrinalini”.  Mrinalini was initiated by Ma Sarad, saintly wife of Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa of Dakshineshwara seeking spiritual refuge.  Mrinalini died of influenza in 1918 in Calcutta at the age of 31.  In one of his letters to Mrinalini, Aranvind mentioned his three beliefs.  First, he believed that whatever he had: talent, virtue, high education-all belonged to God.  Second, he wished to come face to face with God.  Third, in his own words, “Others look upon India, their country, as a mass of matter, a number of fields, plains, forests, mountains, and rivers and nothing more”.  He believed his nation to be his own mother.  He adored her and worshipped her.  He saw the entire nation at his door, seeking shelter and help in attaining freedom from foreign shackles.  Initially, Aravind’s political activities were limited to Baroda, but they soon extended to Maharashtra, Gujarat and Bengal.  He studied Bengal under literature Dinendra Kumar Roy.
Ghosh’s goal was to capture the public through writing.  He made an extensive study of Indian literature and papers on the Indian freedom struggle.  Armed with fluency in Marathi, Gujarati and Bengali, he then transcribed his views in papers like the Indu Prakash, Bande Mataram, Dharma, and Karma Yogin.  His writing became the ideal for the Indian youth.  He called on the young to serve the nation as “karmayogins”.  He wanted the youth to devote all the energies toward freeing Mother India.  He told the youth that, “if you will study, study for her sake; train yourself body and mind and soul for her service; work so that she may prosper; suffer so that she may rejoice”.  Ghosh formed secret revolutionary societies which enveloped Bengal.  He asked members of these secret societies to take a solemn oath to “secure the freedom of Mother India at any cost”.  He stoked the fire of revolution by organising a huge rally on 9th November, 1905.
Aravind Ackroyd Gosh Indian Freedom fighter and philosopher

Ashfaqulla Khan Indian Freedom Fighter

ASHFAQULLA KHAN:
Date of birth: 22nd October, 1900   date of death: 19th December, 1927
            Ashfaqullah Khan was a freedom fighter in national movement who had given away his life along with Ram Prasad Bismil for the betterment of his country. Bismil and Ashfaq, both were good friends and Urdu poets. Bismil was the pen name or Takhallus of Ram Prasad whereas Ashfaq used to write poetry with the pen name of ‘Hasrat’. Both were hanged on the same day, date and time but in different jails.
He was born at Shahjahanpur, a historical city of Uttar Pradesh. His father, Shafiq Ullah Khan belonged to a Patan family who was famous for militancy. His maternal uncle was more knowledgeable where so many members had served in the police and administrative services of British India. In 1922, he met Ram Prasad Bismil at a meeting and then onwards both were fight together against British till their death.
The case of Kakori conspiracy was concluded by awarding death sentence to four daredevils, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Thakur Roshan Singh. The 16 others were awarded the rigorous punishment varying from four years upto life sentence. By an eye witness account, on a Wednesday, four days before he was hanged, two English officers looked into the solitary cell where Ashfaqullah Khan was lodged. He was in the middle of his namaz, “I would like to see how much of that faith remains in him when we hang the rat”, quipped one of them. But he continued his prayer as usual and both of them went away murmuring like a wind’s way.
On Monday, 19th December, 1927, Ashfaq is known to have taken two steps at a time, as he walked up to the post. When his chains were released, he reached for the hanging rope and kissed it by saying like, “my hands are not soiled with the murder of a man. The charges framed against me are a bare false. God will give me justice”.
Ashfaq was a very good Urdu poet who wrote beautiful couplets and ghazals with pen names of ‘Warsi’ and ‘Hasrat’.
---------------------------------------------
Ashfaqulla Khan, a nationalist revolutionary who revolted against the British empire risking his life for the liberation of his motherland, India, was born on 22nd October, 1900 in Shahjahanpur of Uttar Pradesh in a wealthy Zamindari family.  Shafiqullah Khan and Mazaharunnisa Begum were his parents.  Because of his mother’s influence, he developed interest in literature and became an acclaimed poet in Urdu.  He was involved in anti-government activities since his school days and expressing his resentment against the government through his poems.  He got himself introduced to Ram Prasad Bismil, who was the president of the ‘Hindustan Republican Association’.  Initially Bismil hesitated to give membership to Ashfaqulla in his revolutionary organisation.  Later, Bismil was convinced with the commitment of Ashfaqulla and allowed him to become the member of ‘Hindustan Republican Assoication’.  Ashfaqulla actively participated in several actions under the leadership of Bismil planned to rob a train containing the government treasure at Kakori, to procure arms and ammunition for the revolution.  Ashfaqulla opposed the idea and warned that the government would oppress the revolutionaries with full force, if such a robbery took place.  However, as disciplined activist and a democrat as he was, finally agreed to the idea of Bismil as a majority members of the organisation had supported it.  He played a vital role in getting the plan successfully implemented.  When the train was passing through Kakori village on 9th August, 1925 carrying the government treasure, it was robbed.  This incident shocked the British government.  It relentlessly attacked the revolutionaries and arrested the members of the revolutionary organisation.  Ashfaqulla went underground after the incident.  After a year, he was arrested in Delhi because of a betrayer from his own village, who provided information to police.  During the trial, he wished to save Bismil taking total responsibility for the Kokari train robbery incident.  He even did not heed the advice of his advocate and wrote to the Privy Council that he was responsible for the entire incident.  Later on, the court sentenced Ashfaqulla Khan to death.  He was executed on 19th December, 1927 in Fyzabad Jail.
Ashfaqulla Khan Indian Freedom Fighter

Bal Gangadhar Tilak Indian Freedom Fighter

BAL GANGADHAR TILAK:
Date of birth: 23rd July, 1856   year of death: 1920
            Bal Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement.  Tilak sparked the fire for complete independence in Indian consciousness, and is considered the father of Hindu nationalism as well.  Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it!  This famous quote of his is very popular and well-remembered in India even today.  Reverently addressed as Lokmanya (meaning “Beloved of the people” or “Revered by the world”), Tilak was a scholar of Indian history, Sanskrit, Hinduism, mathematics and astronomy.  He was born on 23rd July, 1856, in a village near Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, into a middle class Chitpavan Brahmin family.  Tilak was an avid student with a special aptitude for mathematics.  He was among India’s first generation of youth to receive a modern, college education.  After graduation, Tilak began teaching mathematics in a private school in Pune and later became a journalist.  He became a strong critic of the Western education system, feeling it demeaning to Indian students and disrespectful to India’s heritage.  He organised the Deccan Education Society to improve the quality of education for India’s youth.  Tilak founded the Marathi daily Kesari (The Lion) which fast became a popular reading for the common people of India.  Tilak strongly criticised the government for its brutalism in suppression of free expression, especially in face of protests against the division of Bengal in 1905, and for denigrating India’s culture, its people and heritage.  He demanded the British immediately give the right to self-government to India’s people.  Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in the 1890s, but soon fell into opposition of its liberal-moderate attitude towards the fight for self-government.  Tilak opposed the moderate views of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and was supported by fellow Indian nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab.  In 1907, the Congress Party split into the Garam Dal (literally, “Hot Faction”), led by Tilak, Pal and Lajpat Rai, and the Naram Dal literally, “Soft Faction”), led by Gokhale during its convention at Surat in Gujarat.  When arrested on charges of sedition in 1906, Tilak asked a young Mohammad Ali Jinnah to represent him.  But the British judge convicted him and he was imprisoned from 1908 to 1914 in Mandalay, Burma.  Upon his release, Tilak re-united with his fellow nationalists and re-united the Indian National Congress in 1916.  He also helped found the All India Home Rule League in 1916-1918 with Annie Besant and Mohammad Ali Jinnah.  Tilak proposed various social reforms, such as a minimum age for marriage, and was especially keen to see a prohibition placed on the sale of alcohol.  His thoughts on education and Indian political life have remained highly influential – he was the first Congress leader to suggest that Hindi, written in the devanagari script, should be accepted as the sole national language of India, a policy that was late strongly endorsed by Mahatma Gandhi.  However, English, which Tilak wished to remove completely from the Indian mind, remains as important means of communication in India.  But the usage of Hindi (and other Indian languages) has been reinforced and widely encouraged since the days of the British Raj, and Tilak’s legacy is often credited with this resurgence.  Another of the major contributions relates to the propagation of Sarvajanik (public) “Ganesh festival”, over 10-11 days from Bhadrapada Shukla (Ganesh) Chaturthi to (Anant) Chaturdashi (in August/September span), which contributed for people to get together and celebrate the festival and provided a good platform for leaders to inspire masses.  His call for boycott of foreign goods also served to inspire patriotism among Indian masses.  When Tilak died in 1920, Gandhi paid his respects at is cremation in Bombay, along with 2,00,000 people.  Gandhi called Tilak as the maker of modern India.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak Indian Freedom Fighter

Dadabai Nauroji Indian Freedom Fighter and Economist

DADABHAI NAOROJI:
Date of birth: 4th September, 1825   date of death: 30th June, 1917
He was a Parsi intellectual and a political leader. He was a Member of Parliament of United Kingdom between 1892 and 1895 and was a first Asian became British M.P. he was educated at Elphinstone College and later became a teacher. By 1855 he was Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. He moved to England in 1855, first working in business, later became Professor of Gujarati at University College, London. In 1867, he established East India Association. In 1874, he became Prime Minister of Baroda and was also member of Legislative Council of Bombay (1885-88). Elected for House of Commons from the Liberal Party from Central Finsbury in July, 1892, as the first British Indian M.P. He refused to take oath on the Bible as he was not a Christian, but was allowed to take the oath of office in the name of God on his small book of Avestha. In his political campaign and duties as a Member of Parliament, he was assisted by Mohmad Ali Jinnah. Dadabhai Naoroji is fondly called as the "Grand Old Man of India". He is viewed as the architect who laid the foundation of the Indian freedom struggle.
Dadabhai Naoroji was instrumental in the establishment of the Indian National Congress founded by A.O. Hume in 1885. Thrice he was elected to the post of the President of the Indian National Congress, in 1886, 1893 and in 1906. During his third term, he prevented a split between moderates and extremists in the party. The Congress' demand for swaraj (self-rule) was first expressed publicly by him in his presidential address in 1906. Dadabhai Naoroji believed in non-violent and constitutional methods of protest. He died at the age of 92 on June 30, 1917.
The “Drain of wealth” theory was his and he even published a book “Poverty and Un-British rule in India”. He said that there are so many British officials working in India and they send all their money back to England. The salary of the people of the Indian Council is paid from the Indian revenue, though it is in England. After retirement of the British their pensions are given from India. There are so many British soldiers in India, but they are being paid by the Indian revenues. There are so many British companies in India and their profit was given to England.

Chittaranjan Das Indian Freedom Fighter

CHITTARANJAN DAS:
Date of birth: 25th November, 1870   date of death: 16th June, 1925
            Cittaranjan Das (popularly called as Deshabandhu) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the national movement. Educated in England, his public career began in 1909 when he successfully defended Aurobindo Ghosh on charges of involvement in the previous year’s Alipore Bomb case. He was a leading figure in Bengal during the Non co-operation movement of 1920-22 and initiated the ban on British clothes, setting an example by burning his own European clothes and taking up ‘desi’ Khadi clothes. With Motilal Nehru, he founded the Swaraj Party to express his non- moderate opinions. He brought out a news paper called ‘Forward’ and later changed its name to ‘Liberty’ to fight the British. When the Calcutta Corporation was formed, he became its first Mayor. He presided over the Gaya session of Indian National Congress.
Chittaranjan Das Indian Freedom Fighter

Bipin Chandrapal Indian Freedom Fighter


BIPIN CHANDRA PAL
Date of Birth: 7th November, 1858 and Date of Death: 20th May, 1932
Pal was born on November 7, 1858 in at Sylhet (now in Bangladesh). He came to Calcutta and got admitted in the Presidency college but left studies before graduating. However he had remarkable Literacy competence and studied various books extensively. He started his career as school master andworked as a librarian in the Calcutta Public Library. Here he came in contact with Keshav Chandra Senand others like Shivnath Shastri, B.K.Goswami and S.N.Banerjee. Their influence attracted him to join active politics. Soon he got inspired by the extremist patriotism of Tilak, Lala and Aurobindo. In 1898 he went to England to study comparative theology but came back to preach ideal of Swadeshi through himself in the non cooperation movement due to his difference of view points with other leaders of the movement.
Bipin Chandra was the only son of his parents, but he had a sister, Kripa by name. In December 1881, he married his first wife, Nrityakali Devi, a Brahmin widow, in Bombay, and after her death nine years later he married again (1891), this time also a Brahmin widow, Birajmohini Devi, who happened to be a distant cousin of Surendranath Banerjea. He had by his two wives three sons and five daughters.
Through his weekly journal, the New India (1992), he preached the ideal of Swaraj or complete political freedom to be achieved through courage, self-help and self-sacrifice. He did not agree with Tilak’s concept of Hindu nationalism, but preached a “composite patriotism.” which was better suited for a country of so many diversities like India. The partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1905 caused an unprecedented political upheaval in the country. In 1996 Bipin Chandra started a daily paper, the Bande Mataram, as the Editor of which Aurobindo Ghose appeared “like a stormy petrel in Bengal politics”. He also started a monthly journal, the Hindu Review (1973), and tried to popularise the idea, though without much success. He then joined the Home Rule Movement of Besant and Tilak and rejoined the Congress in 1916. He tried to make the people conscious of the great dangers which political pan-Islamism presented to the future of India. The empire-idea alone, in his opinion, could provide an effective remedy for this evil.
Bipin Chandra was not only a great preacher but also a prolific writer. Besides regularly contributing to the journals of his day, he wrote on the philosophy of Bengal Vaishnavism, contributed a series of studies on the lives of some of the makers of modern India like Rammohan Roy, Keshab Chandra Sen, Aurobindo Ghose, Rabindranath Tagore, Asutosh Mukherjee and Annie Besant, gave expositions of some of the fundamental aspects of Indian culture, attempted an interpretative history of the modern renaissance in Bengal and left for us memoirs of his own life and times.
Bipin Chandra Pal was an Indian nationalist.  He was among the triumvirate of Lal Bal Pal.  Bipin Chandra Pal was born in Poil Village, Habiganj District, Bangladesh, in a wealthy Hindu Vaishnava family.  His father was Ramchandra Pal, a Persian scholar and small landowner.  His son was Niranjan Pal, one of the founders of Bombay Talkies.  B.C. Pal is known as the ‘Father of Revolutionary Thoughts’ in India and was one of the freedom fighters of India.
Bipin Chandra Pal was a teacher, journalist, orator, writer and librarian; he was famous as one of the triumvirate of three militant patriots of the Congress – the “Pal” of Lal Bal Pal.  The trio was responsible for initiating the first popular upsurge against British colonial policy in the 1905 partition of Bengal, before the advent of Gandhi into Indian politics.  Pal was also the founder of the journal Bande Mataram.
Even thought he understood the positive aspects of Empire as a ‘great idea’, the ‘Federal-idea is greater’.  In both public and private life he was radical.  He married a widow (he had to sever ties to his family for this).  At the time of B.G. Tilak’s (“Bal”) arrest and government repression in 1907, he left for England, where he was briefly associated with the radical India House and founder the Swaraj journal.  He was among the first to criticize Gandhi or the ‘Gandhi cult’ since it ‘sought to replace the present government by no government or by the priestly autocracy of the Mahatma’.  His criticism of Gandhi was persistent beginning with Gandhi’s arrival in India and open in 1921 session of the Indian National Congress he delivered in his presidential speech a severe criticism of Gandhi’s ideas as based on magic rather than logic, addressing Gandhi: “You wanted magic.  I tried to give you logic.  But logic is in bad odour when the popular mind is excited.   You wanted mantaram, I am not a Rishi and cannot give Mantaram…. I have never spoken a half-truth when I know the truth…. I have never tried to lead people in faith blindfolded’, for his ‘priestly, pontifical tendencies’, his alliance with pan-Islamism during the Khilafat movement, which led to Pal’s eclipse from political life from 1922 till his death in 1932 under conditions of object poverty.  Comparing Gandhi with Leo Tolstoy during the year he died, Pal noted that Tolstoy ‘was an honest philosophical anarchist’ while Gandhi remained in his eyes as ‘a papal autocrat’ Firm and ethically grounded, not only did he perceive the ‘Congress Babel’ in terms of its short-sightedness in late 1920s or, Congress as an instance of repudiating debt’s folly, composed of a generation ‘that knows no Joseph’, Pal’s critical comments should be located in context, since nobody can jump out of his skin of time.
The trio had advocated radical means to get their message across the British, like boycotting British manufactured goods, burning Western clothes made in the mills of Manchester or Swadeshi and strikes and lockouts of British owned businesses and industrial concerns.
He came under the influence of eminent Bengali leaders, not as a hero-worshipper or somebody looking for a guru for guidance, of his time such as Keshab Chandra Sen and Sibnath Sastri, as his family were in Brahmo Samaj.  He was imprisoned for six months on the grounds of his refusal to give evidence against Sri Aurobindo in the Vande Mataram sedition case.  He died on 20th May, 1932.

Bipin Chandra Pal was born at Sylhet (now in Bangladesh) in a wealthy Kayastha family. His father was Ramchandra Pal. He was a teacher, journalist, orator, writer and editor, who also started the journal ‘Bandematarm’. He advocated extremist means to get the message to the British like boycotting goods.
Bipin Chandrapal Indian Freedom Fighter

Bhagath Singh Indian Freedom Fighter

BHAGAT SINGH:
Date of birth: 27th September, 1907   date of death: 23rd March, 1931
Bhagat Singh was an Indian revolutionary, considered to be the most famous martyrs of the Indian Freedom struggle. He was born in a Sikh family to Sardar Kishan Singh and Vidhyavati in the Khatkar Kalnlage near Banga in the Jalandhar district of Punjab. His uncle Sardar Ajith Singh as well as his father was great freedom fighters, so Bhagat Singh grew up in atmosphere. Ajith Singh established the Indian Patriotic Association along with Syed Haider Raza, to organise the peasants against the Chenab Canal Colony Bill. He also established the secret organisation, Bharat Mata Society.
The Ghadar Movement left a deep imprint on his mind. Kartar Singh Sarabha hanged at the age of 19, became his hero. The massacre at Jallianwallah Bagh on April 13, 1919 drove him to go to Amritsar, where he kissed the earth sanctified by the martyr’s blood and brought back to home a little of the soaked soil. He studied in the D.A.V School at Lahore and in search of revolutionary groups and ideas, he met Sukhdev and Rajguru. Bhagat Singh with the help of Chandrasekhar Azad formed the Hindusthan Socialist Republican Army (HRSA). During the Simon Go Back movement, Lala Lajpat Rai was wounded and died later. To avenge his death, Bhagat Singh and Rajguru killed Mr.Sunders.
When the British Government promulgated the two bills ‘The Trade Union Dispute Bill’ and ‘Public Safety Bill’ which Bhagat Singh and his party thought that black laws aimed to curbing the citizen’s civil liberties, they decided to oppose these bills by throwing a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly. However, things changed and the Government arrested Bhagat Singh and his friends on 8th April, 1929. On 23rd March, 1931, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged to death.
Bhagath Singh Indian Freedom Fighter

Ajith Singh Indian Freedom Fighter

AJITH SINGH
Date of death: 16th August, 1947
            An uncle of Bhagat Singh, the well- known revolutionary, he was a close associate of Lala Lajpat Rai. He was arrested along with the latter and deported to Mandalay in 1907. After his release, he started a paper, Peshwa and founded the revolutionary Bharath Mata Society. In 1908, he escaped from India and till 1947 he worked with Ghadar Party, living in various countries.
Ajith Singh Indian Freedom Fighter

Asaf Ali Indian Freedom Fighter

ASAF ALI (1888- 1953):
            A nationalist Muslim and freedom fighter who courted arrest several times. Member, Congress Working Committee, Member, Central Legislative Assembly, 1935- 1947, Member, Executive Council, Government of India, 1946- 47, first Indian ambassador to USA, 1947- 48 and Governor of Orissa.
Asaf Ali Indian Freedom Fighter

Amir Chand Indian Freedom Fighter

AMIR CHAND (1859- 1915):
            A revolutionary, who was arrested in connection with the Lahore Bomb and Delhi conspiracy case (the latter an alleged plot to kill the Viceroy Lord Hardinge) in February, 1914. Sentenced to death and executed on 8th May, 1915.

Charles Freer Andrews Deenabandhu Indian Freedom Fighter

ANDREWS, CHARLES FREER [DINABANDHU ANDREWS] (1871-1940)
He was an English missionary and a teacher at St. Stephen’s College, Delhi.  He had a deep love for Indian and wanted to be an Indian in every respect.  He was closely associated with Rabindranath Tagore, G.K. Gokhale, Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders.  He lived with Gandhiji at the Phoenix Ashram in South Africa and strove to improve the lot of Indians living in South Africa, East Africa, West Indies, Fiji, etc.  He also actively participated in Trade Union activities and was twice elected President of the Trade Union Congress, in 1925 and 1927.  He also joined the movements for the removal of untouchability.  It was in pursuit of this that he joined the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1925 and worked with Dr. Ambedkar in formulating the Harijan demands in 1933.  On account of his constant concern for the poor, he earned the title of Dinabandhu from Mahatma Gandhi.
Charles Freer Andrews Deenabandhu Indian Freedom Fighter

M A Ansari Indian Freedom Fighter

ANSARI, M.A. (1880-1936)
Qualified as a physician.  Organised the All-India Medical Mission to Turkey in 1912-13.  Later took a leading part in the Home Rule League agitation.  Elected President, Muslim League in 1920.  He also participated in the Khilafat, the Home Rule and Non-Cooperation movements.  He was the founder of the nationalist educational institution, Jamia, in 1920.
M A Ansari Indian Freedom Fighter

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Indian Freedom Fighter

AZAD, ABUL KALAM (1888-1958)
He was born in Mecca.  His father was a great mystic and scholar of eminence.  His Arab mother was the daughter of the Mufti of Medina.  He had traditional education and was a great scholar of Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Islamic theology.  Adopted the pen-name of Azad at the age of 16.  In 1909 he took to journalism and published a number of papers, such as Al-Nadwah, The Vakil, Al-Hilal and Al-Balagh.  He was elected President of the INC when only 35, the youngest to hold that office.  In 1940, he was elected a second time and continued to hold that position until June, 1946.  After independence and until his death on 22nd February, 1958, Azad was Education Minister in Nehru’s cabinet.  Azad’s autobiographical narrative, India Wins Freedom, is both famous and controversial.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Indian Freedom Fighter

Asur Singh Indian Freedom Fighter

ASUR SINGH (1872-1916)
A freedom fighter and revolutionary terrorist of modern India.  Killed policemen and sabotaged railway lines.  Credited with a vital role in Delhi Conspiracy case.  Remained in underground for 18 months.  Died on the gallows in the Lahore Jail in December, 1916.
Asur Singh Indian Freedom Fighter

Chandra Shekhar Azad Indian Freedom Fighter

CHANDRASEKHAR AZAD
Date of birth: 23rd July, 1906 and Date of Death: 27th February, 1931
Chandrasekhar Azad was a great Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary thinker.  Revered for his audacious deeds and fierce patriotism, he was the mentor of Bhagat Singh, the famous Indian martyr.  Chandrasekhar Azad is considered one of the greatest Indian freedom fighter along with Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Ram Prasad Bismil, and Ashfaqulla Khan.  Chandrasekhar Azad’s parents were Pandit Sita Ram Tiwari and Jagrani Devi.  He received his early schooling in Bhavra District Jhabua (Madhya Pradesh).  For higher studies he went to the Sanskrit Pathashala at Varanasi.  Young Azad was one of the young generations of Indians when Mahatma Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement.  But many were disillusioned with the suspension of the struggle in 1922 owing to the Chauri Chaura massacre of 22 policemen.  Although Gandhi was appalled by the brutal violence, Azad did not feel that violence was unacceptable in the struggle, especially in view of the Amritsar Massacre of 1919, where Army units killed hundreds of unarmed civilians and wounded thousands in Amritsar.  Young Azad and contemporaries like Bhagat Singh were deeply and emotionally influenced by that tragedy.  As a revolutionary, he adopted the last name ‘Azad’, which means “Free” in Urdu.  There is an interesting story that while he adopted the name “Azad” he made a pledge that the Police will never capture him alive.  Azad and other had committed themselves to absolute independence by any means.  He was most famous for the Kakori Rail Dacoity in 1925and the assassination of the assistant superintendent of Police John Poyaniz Saunders in 1928.  Azad and his compatriots would target British officials known for their oppressive actions against ordinary people, or for beating and torturing arrested freedom fighters.  Azad was also a believer in socialism as the basis for a future India, free of social and economic oppression and adversity.  Bhagat Singh joined Azad following the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, an Indian leader who was beaten to death by police officials.  Azad trained Singh and others in covert activities, and the latter grew close to him after witnessing his resolve, patriotism and courage.  Along with fellow patriots like Rajguru and Sukhdev, Azad and Singh formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, committed to complete Indian Independence and socialist principles of for India’s future progress.  Betrayed by an informer on 27th February, 1931, Azad was encircled by British troops in the Alfred Park, Allahabad.  He kept on fighting till the last bullet.  Azad is a hero to many Indians today.  Alfred Park was renamed Chandrasekhar Azad Park, as have been scores of schools, colleges, roads and other public institutions across India.

One of the most famous revolutionaries from the present-day Uttar Pradesh, he was arrested during the Non-Cooperation movement, and was flogged for ridiculing the court during trial by declaring his name as Azad, his father’s as Swatantra and his home as prison.  From thence he became famous as Azad.  He was actively associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army and was involved in a number of revolutionary and terrorist cases such as Kakori Conspiracy, Lahore Conspiracy, etc.  At Alfred Park, Allahabad, while fighting alone with the police it is said that he shot himself dead with the last bullet he had in his pistol, after exhausting all his ammunition.
Chandra Shekhar Azad Indian Freedom Fighter
CHANDRA SEKHAR AZAD:
Date of Birth: July 23, 1906 and Date of death: February 27, 1931
Chandrashekhar Azad was born on July 23, 1906 in Badarka village of Unnao district in Uttar Pradesh. His parents were Pandit Sitaram Tiwari and Jagarani Devi. Pandit Sitaram Tiwari was serving in erstwhile estate of Alirajpur (situated in present day Madhya Pradesh) and Chandrashekhar Azad’s childhood was spent in the village Bhabra . On the insistence of her mother Jagrani Devi, Chandrashekhar Azad went to Kashi Vidyapeeth, Benaras for studying Sanskrit.
Young Chandra Shekhar was fascinated by and drawn to the great national upsurge of the non-violent, non-cooperation movement of 1920-21 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. When arrested and produced before the magistrate, he gave his name as 'Azad', his father's name as 'Swatantra' and his residence as 'prison'. The provoked magistrate sentenced him to fifteen lashes of flogging. The title of Azad stuck thereafter.
After withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement, Azad was attracted towards revolutionary activities. He joined the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) and was involved in the Kakori Conspiracy (1926), the attempt to blow up the Viceroy's train (1926), the Assembly bomb incident, the Delhi Conspiracy, the shooting of Saunders at Lahore (1928) and the Second Lahore conspiracy.
Azad was on the wanted list of the police. On 27February 1931, in the Alfred Park, Allahabad, when an associate betrayed him, well-armed police circled Azad. For quite some time he held them at bay, single-handedly with a small pistol and few cartridges. Left with only one bullet, he fired it at his own temple and lived up to his resolve that he would never be arrested and dragged to gallows to be hanged.

Madhav Srihari Aney Indian Freedom Fighter

ANEY, MADHAV SRIHARI (1880-1968)
A statesman and right wing Congressman of Berar.  He had a distinguished academic career and started life as a teacher; member Congress Working Committee 1924-25.  Arrested in Civil Disobedience Movement, 1930.  Vice-President, Indian Home Rule League, and member Legislative Assembly from 1924-30 and 1935.  Joined Responsivist Party, which was formed in 1926.  General Secretary, Anti-Communal Award Committee, 1935.  Member, Governor-General’s Executive Council, 1941, but resigned in 1943 as a protest against the Government’s attitude towards Mahatma Gandhi’s fast unto death.  Representative of India in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), 1943-47; member, Constituent Assembly and later Member of Parliament.
Madhav Srihari Aney Indian Freedom Fighter

Gapal Ganesh Agarkar Indian Freedom Fighter

GOPAL GANESH AGARKAR (1856- 1895):
            A Chitpavan Brahmin from Maharastra, he was a journalist, social reformer and a great nationalist. He was the editor of the Maharatta and the Kesari. In 1888, he launched his own weekly Sudharak to popularise his ideas of social reform. He denounced caste and untouchability and battled to increase the minimum marriageable age of boys and girls. He worked with Tilak, M.G.Ranade and other social reformers of the period.
Gapal Ganesh Agarkar Indian Freedom Fighter




Kharshedji Rustamji Cama Indian freedom fighter and social reformer

KHARSHEDJI RUSTAMJI CAMA (1831-1909)
He was a Parsi businessman, who as deeply interested in public activities and social reforms.  He advocated socio-religious reforms among the Parsis.  In 1858, Cama took over the proprietorship of the weekly, the Rast Goftar, an organ of the new progressive social reforms.  The famous revolutionary Madam Bhikaiji Cama was his daughter-in-law.
Kharshedji Rustamji Cama Indian freedom fighter and social reformer

Satyendranath Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

SATYENDRANATH BOSE (1882-1908)
A revolutionary terrorist and founder of the Anand Math, a revolutionary secret society at Midnapur.  Dismissed from government service in April, 1906, for his role in the Swadeshi movement in Bengal.  Sentenced to death in the Muzaffarpur Bomb case, Alipur Bomb case and for his part in the killing of the approver in the case, Narendra Gossain, in Alipur Jail.  He died on the gallows.
Satyendranath Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

Ras Behari Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

RASBEHARI BOSE (1886-1945)
Rash Behari Bose was born on May 25, 1886, in Palara- Bighati (Hoogly) village. His mother passed away in 1889 when Rash Behari was still a baby. He was brought up thereafter by his maternal Aunt Vama Sundari.
Rash Behari Bose left Calcutta on May 12, 1915. He went to Japan as Raja P.N.T. Tagore, a distant relative of Rabindranath Tagore. Some historians say that Rabindranath Tagore was aware of this impersonation. Rash Behari reached Singapore on May 22, 1915 and Tokyo in June. Between 1915 and 1918, Rash Behari lived almost like a fugitive, changing his residence 17 times. During this period he met Herambalal Gupta and Bhagwan Singh of the Ghadar Party. Japan was an ally of Britain's in the First World War and tried to extradite Rash Behari and Herambalal from Japan. Herambalal escaped to U.S.A. and Rash Behari ended his hide and seek by becoming a Japanese citizen. He married Tosiko, daughter of the Soma family who were sympathetic toward Rash Behari's efforts. The couple had two children, a boy, Masahide, and a girl, Tetaku. Tosiko died in March 1928 at the age of 28.
Rash Behari Bose learned Japanese and became a journalist and writer. He took part in many cultural activities and wrote many books in Japanese, explaining India's viewpoints. It was due to Rash Behari's efforts that a conference was help in Tokyo from March 28 to 30, 1942, for discussion on political issues.
A great revolutionary of the first phase of the revolutionary terrorism.  He was associated with the Yugantar and the Ghadar Party.  In 1912, he and Basant Biswas threw a bomb at the procession of Viceroy Hardinge at Chandni Chowk, Delhi.  In 1915, he escaped to Japan, where he founded the Indian Independence League (1924) and also the Indian National Army.
It was on 21st January 1945 that Rash Bihari Bose died in Tokyo before the end of World War II. The Japanese government honoured him with the highest title given to a foreigner – The Second Order of Merit of the Rising Sun.
Ras Behari Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

Khudiram Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

KHUDIRAM BOSE (1889-1908)
Khudiram Bose was born on December 3, 1889 in the small village of Habibpur situated close to the town of Tamluk in Midnapore district of Bengal. Khudiram Bose was the fourth child in a family of three daughters. His parents, Trailokyanath Bose and Lakshmipriya Devi had two sons before the birth of Khudiram but both of them died prematurely.
Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki from Jugantar were sent to the town of Muzaffarpur in Bihar to carry out the killing of Kingsford, the magistrate of Calcutta Presidency. The two revolutionaries went to Muzaffarpur, adopted the code names of Haren Sarkar and Dinesh Roy respectively, and took shelter in the 'Dharmashala' of Kishorimohan Bandopadhyay. Though they wanted Kingsford dead, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki did not want the bloodshed of innocent people accumulated around a court during the daytime. Therefore they decided to shoot him when he was on his way from the European Club to his home or vice versa. On April 30, 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki took position outside the European Club and targeted the carriage of Kingsford as it moved out of the club at around 8:30 in the evening. The bombs and the pistol shots hit the carriage. Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki immediately fled the place of crime thinking that their task was complete, only to be informed later that it was the wife and daughter of barrister Pringle Kennedy who were traveling inside Kingsford's carriage. Both Khudiram and Prafulla were filled with remorse for their act of killing two innocent women. The duo were then constantly on the move to escape the eyes of the police. However, the police caught them soon after the incident took place.
One of India’s earliest revolutionaries to die on the gallows on 11th August, 1908.  He was member of the revolutionary society the Yugantar of Barindra Ghosh.  He along with Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb at the carriage of Kingsford, an English Judge at Muzaffarpur (Bihar).  He was arrested in the Muzaffarpur Conspiracy case and sentenced to death.
Khudiram Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

Anand Mohan Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

 ANAND MOHAN BOSE (1847-1906)
A pioneering educationist, social reformer and nationalist of Bengal, he strove hard to popularise the spread of education among women.  Politically, Ananda Mohan Bose had two distinctive contributions. It was he who for the first time felt that under the colonial setting students, who constituted the most conscious section of the community, must play a constructive role in social and political developments of the country and to that end they should have an organisation of their own.
Bose established the Calcutta Students Association in 1875 and, to give status to it, he himself became its first president. On the political plane, Bose made another pioneering contribution by setting up a political association called Indian Association in 1876. Its objective was to organise constitutional agitation against the colonial regime. The Indian Association convened a national conference in 1883, which eventually turned out to be the Indian National Congress of which Bose was one of the founding leaders. Bose was elected president of the Congress at its Madras Session of 1898.
Ananda Mohan made significant contributions as a social reformer and educator. He worked hard for the promotion of female education. He called upon all to chalk out social programme to eradicate illiteracy from the society. In 1876 Bose established the Banga Mahila Vidyalaya in Calcutta. Later he amalgamated the Vidyalaya with the Bethune School in order to achieve better result in the organisation of female education. He founded the City College in Calcutta in 1879. A section of the City College was also opened at his residence in his hometown, Mymensingh.
Ananda Mohan Bose was successively nominated a member of the Bengal Legislative Council, a member of the Calcutta University Senate and a Fellow of the University. It was due to his most persistent efforts that Calcutta University Act of Incorporation was so amended as to convert it from merely an examining body to a both examining and teaching institution. Under the India Act of 1892 the Calcutta University got the privilege to elect a member to the Bengal Legislative Council. Bose happened to be its first representative to the Council.
Anand Mohan Bose Indian Freedom Fighter

Womesh Chandra Banerjee Indian Freedom Fighter

Womesh Chandra Banerjee (1844-1905)
He was an Indian politician from Calcutta and the first president of Indian National Congress. After graduating in Law from Middle Temple, London, he became the most sought barrister in the High Court of Calcutta. In 1883 he defended Surendranath Banerjee in the famous Contempt of Court Case against him in the Calcutta High Court. He founded East India association in 1865. Womesh Chandra Banerjee presided over the first session of the Indian National Congress held at Bombay in 1885. In the 1886 session held at Calcutta, under the presidency of Dadabhai Naoroji, he proposed the formation of standing committees of the Congress in each province for the better co-ordination of its work. He advocated that the Congress should confine its activities to political matters only, leaving the question of social reforms to other organisations. He was the president of the Indian National Congress again in the 1892 session in Allahabad.
Womesh Chandra Banerjee Indian Freedom Fighter

Jamnalal Bajaj Seth Indian Freedom Fighter

BAJAJ, SETH JAMNALAL (1889-1942)
Philanthropist joined Indian National Congress at the age of 30.  He renounced the title of Rai Bahadur as a protest against the policy of the British Government toward India.  Treasurer of the Congress, 1920-42; founder of the Gandhi Seva Sangh.  At the Nagpur session of the Congress, he did valuable work as the Chairman of the Reception Committee.  He was keenly interested in the development of rural industries and handloom cloth.
Jamnalal Bajaj Seth Indian Freedom Fighter

Balmukund Bhai Indian Freedom Fighter

BALMUKUND, BHAI (1891-1919)
Began his political career as a follower of Lalal Lajpat Rai, but later on joined the revolutionary groups of Lala Hardayal and Ras Behari Bose.  He was a member of the revolutionary group which threw a bomb at Viceroy Lord Hardinge in Delhi in 1912.  He was arrested in the Hardinge Bomb case and hanged.
Balmukund Bhai Indian Freedom Fighter

Surendranath Banerjee Indian Freedom Fighter

BANERJEE, SURENDRANATH (1898-1925)
A national leader, popular journalist and dedicated educationist of Modern India.  He successfully competed for the Indian Civil Service in 1869 but on technical grounds he was disqualified.  After a court judgement in his favour, he was inducted into the Civil Services, but was soon dismissed on flimsy grounds.  After dismissal, he plunged into the role of public agitator fighting to redress the grievances of all those who had suffered.  He mooted the idea of holding a National Conference of representatives from political associations all over the country.  Published the paper called as BengaliOne of the founders of the INC, he walked out of the Congress in 1918, after the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political scene.  In January, 1921, the Governor of Bengal appointed him as minister of local self-government and health.  He thus became the first Indian to hold that position.  Benerjee’s acceptance of office provoked strong protest and the nationalists had no truck with him thereafter.
Surendranath Banerjee Indian Freedom Fighter

Annie Besant Indian Freedom Fighter Social Activist

Annie Besant Indian Freedom Fighter Social Activist
ANNIE BEASANT (1847- 1933):
            An Irish English woman, who came to India in 1839 to work for the Theosophical Society and established her home in Varnasi, where she founded the Central Hindu College in 1898.  In 1907, she was elected President of the Theosophical Society.  She ardently worked for India’s independence.  In 1914, she began the publication of the Commonweal and New India, which became the chief organs for the tempestuous propaganda for India’s freedom.  In 1915 she founded the Home Rule League to launch the Home Rule Movement and was made President of the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1917.  The same year, she established the Indian Boy Scouts Association and also the Indian Women’s Association.  She founded a number of schools and colleges.  The National University at Adyar was founded by her in 1918.

Sohan Singh Bhakna Indian Freedom Fighter

Sohan Singh Bhakna Indian Freedom Fighter
SOHAN SINGH BHAKNA (1870-1968)
He was a Namdhari Sikh who went to USA in 1909 in search of employment.  There he founded, in 1913, the Hind Association, later known the Hind Association of the Pacific Coast.  Sohan Singh Bhakna was the founder President and Lala Hardayal the Secretary of this association of the Indian settlers in USA and Canada.  This association began to publish a paper Ghadar, after which the revolutionary activities of the association came to be known as the Ghadar Party.  Shohan Singh was associated with Komagata Maru ship incident in 1914.  He was arrested for his role in the Ghadar Party activities and was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to transportation for life.  He spent 16 years in the Andamans and other prisons in India.  He was released in 1930 and devoted his remaining years to organising Kisan Sabhas.

Ram Chandra Bharadwaj Indian Freedom Fighter

Ram Chandra Bharadwaj Indian Freedom Fighter
RAM CHANDRA BHARADWAJ (1886-1918)
A revolutionary journalist and editor of the Aftab, the Akash and the Bharat Mata.  He left for the USA in 1911, where he worked for the Ghadar Party and edited the Ghadar and also acted as the leader of the movement after Lala Hardayal’s departure from the USA, was assassinated on 23rd April, 1918, inside a courtroom in San Francisco by a secret agent of the British Government.

Subramania Bharati Indian Freedom Fighter

Subramania Bharati Indian Freedom Fighter
SUBRAMANIA BHARATI (1882-1921)
Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathiyar was born to Chinnasami Subramanya Iyer and Lakhsmiammaal as "Subbayya" on December 11, 1882 in the Tamil village of Ettayapuram. He was educated at a local high school called "The M.D.T. Hindu College" in Tirunelveli. From a very young age he learnt music and at 11th, he learnt songs. It was here that he was conferred the title of "Bharathi" (one blessed by Saraswati, the goddess of learning).  Eminent poet of Tamil renaissance, the title of Bharati was conferred on him by the raja of Ettayapuram (Tamil Nadu) when he was only eleven (Bharati is a popular name of Saraswati, the goddess of learning).  Associated with the extremists in the Congress, he wrote songs in praise of gods and notable personalities including Gandhiji and Guru Gobind Singh.
Bharathi participated in the historic Surat Congress in 1907, which deepened the divisions within the Indian National Congress between the militant wing led by Tilak and Aurobindo and the moderate wing. Bharathi supported Tilak and Aurobindo together with V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Kanchi Varathaachariyar. Tilak openly supported armed resistance against the British.
In 1908, he gave evidence in the case which had been instituted by the British against V.O. Chidambaram Pillai. In the same year, the proprietor of the journal India was arrested in Madras. Faced with the prospect of arrest, Bharathi escaped to Pondicherry which was under French rule. From there he edited and published the weekly journal India, Vijaya, a Tamil daily, Bala Bharatha, English monthly, and Suryothayam, a local weekly of Pondicherry. The British tried to suppress Bharathi's output by stopping remittances and letters to the papers. Both India and Vijaya were banned in British India in 1909.

Vinayaka Narahari Vinoba Bhave Indian Freedom Fighter

Vinayaka Narahari (Vinoba ) Bhave Indian Freedom Fighter
VINAYAK NARAHARI BHAVE [VINOBA BHAVE] (1895-1982)
Vinoba was born in a Brahmin family on September 11, 1895 at the village of Gagoda in Kolaba district of Maharashtra. He was named Vinayak at birth and was influenced by his mother Rukmini Devi, a religious woman. His younger brother, Balkoba Shivaji, remained unmarried and adopted a life of renunciation and service to humanity like him. He was one of the most trusted lieutenants of Mahatma Gandhi.
Vinoba's involvement in the freedom movement during this period remained. In 1923, he was jailed for months at Nagda jail and Akola jail for taking a prominent part in the flag satyagraha at Nagpur. In 1925, he was sent by Gandhi to Vykon (in Kerala) to supervise the entry of the Harijans to the temple. In 1932, he was jailed for six months to Dhulia for raising his voice against the British rule. In 1940, he was selected by Gandhi as the first individual satyagrahi. He was jailed thrice during 1940-41 for individual satyagraha at Nagpur jails; first time for three months, second time for six months and third time for one year. Vinoba was not known nationally when Gandhi selected him for individual satyagraha.
In March 1948, Gandhi's followers and constructive workers met at Sevagram. The idea of Sarvodaya Samaj (society) surfaced and started getting acceptance. Vinoba got busy with activities which would sooth the wounds of the partition of the nation. In the beginning of 1950, he launched the programme of kanchan- mukti (freedom from dependence on gold, i.e. money) and Rishi- Kheti (cultivation without the use of bullocks as was practised by Rishis, i.e. the sages of ancient times). In April 1951, after attending the Sarvodaya conference at Shivnampalli, he started his peace-trek on foot through the violence-torn region of Telangana(now in Andhra Pradesh). The disturbances were caused by the communists. On April 18, 1951, his meeting with the villagers at Pochampalli opened a new chapter in the history of non-violent struggle. The Harijans of the village told him that they needed 80 acres of land to make a living. Referring to this, Vinoba asked the villagers if they could do something to solve this problem. To everybody's surprise, Ram Chandra Reddy, a landlord, got up and showed his willingness to give 100 acres of land. This incident, unplanned and unheard, showed a way to solve the problem of the landless. The Bhoodan (Gift of the Land) movement was launched.
He actively participated in the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha, the Temple Entry Movement in Kerala, the Salt Satyagraha and the Dandi March in 1930.  He led the Individual Satyagraha in 1940 and joined the Quit India Movement.  He was a staunch Gandhian and led the Bhoodan and Sarvodaya movements after independence.

Ram Prasad Bismil Indian Freedom Fighter

Ram Prasad Bismil Indian Freedom Fighter
RAM PRASAD BISMIL (1897-1927)
Born at Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh, he actively participated in terrorist movements.  A member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association/Army, he was arrested and sentenced to death for participating in the Kakori train dacoity on 9th August, 1925.  He composed the famous revolutionary song “Sarfaroshi ki temanna ab hamare dil main hai; dekhan hai zore kitna bazu-e-katil main hai”.
A pamphlet titled "The Revolutionary" was published in January 1925 under a fictitious name, Vijay Kumar and was circulated all over India. It was a pamphlet of four pages wherein the programme or manifesto of the revolutionaries was declared with a promise to Indian public for equal opportunity to every man irrespective of social status high or low, rich or poor. Policies of Mohandas Gandhi were openly criticised and youths were called to join the organisation. The police were astonished to see the language of pamphlet and sought its leader in Bengal. Sachindra Nath Sanyal had gone to despatch this pamphlet in a bulk and was arrested in Bankura, West Bengal. Before Sanyal's arrest Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee had also gone in the hands of police at Howrah railway station of Calcutta in Bengal.

Mahadevi Varma Indian Freedom Fighter Activist Educationist

Mahadevi Varma Indian Freedom Fighter Activist Educationist
MAHADEVI VARMA was born on 26th March, 1907 and died on Death: 11th September, 1987
Mahadevi Varma (26th March, 1907 - 11th September, 1987) best known as an outstanding Hindi poet, was a freedom fighter, woman’s activist and educationist from India.  She is widely regarded as the “modern Meera” [citation needed].  She was a major poet of the Chhayavaad generation, a period of romanticism in Modern Hindi poetry ranging from 1914-1938.  With passage of time, her limited but outstanding prose has been recognised as unique in Hindi Literature.  She was a prominent poet in Hindi Kavi sammelans (Gatherings of poets).
She was the Principal, and then the Vice Chancellor of Prayag Mahila Vidyapeeth, a woman’s residential college in Allahabad.  She was awarded India’s highest literary award, for lifetime achievement, the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship in 1979, followed by the Jnanpith Award in 1982.  She was the recipient of the Padma Vibhushan, India’s second-highest civilian award, in 1988.
Mahadevi was born in Farrukhabad, United Provinces in a family of lawyers.  She was educated at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.  She was the eldest child of Govinda Prasad and Hemrani and had two brothers and a sister, Shyama.  She was married in 1914 with Dr. Swarup Narain Varma in Indore at a tender age of 7.  She stayed with her parents while her husband studied in Lucknow to complete his education, during which time, she received her higher education at the Allahabad University and passed her B.A examination in 1929 and completed her M.A in Sanskrit in 1933.  She later joined her husband in the princely state of Tamkoi around 1920 and later moved to Allahabad to pursue her interest in poetry with agreement from her husband, as she refused to accept her marriage with him in childhood.  Mahadevi Varma and her husband mostly lived separately pursuing their respective interests and used to meet occasionally.
After the death of her husband in 1966, she moved permanently to Allahabad and lived there until her death.  Mahadevi Varma was deeply affected by Buddhism and also contributed to the Indian freedom movement.  She even tried to become a Buddhist bhikshuni.
Mahadevi was appointed as the first headmistress of Allahabad (Prayag) Mahila Vidyapeeth, which was started with a view to imparting cultural and literary education to girls through Hindi medium.  Later, she became the chancellor of the institute.
She died on 11th September, 1987 at 9:27 pm.  Her bunglow still stands at Ashok Nagar colony in Allahabad.  It is under possession of descendants of her deceased secretary, Pt. Ganga Prasad Pandey.  One her birth centenary year (2007), they have recreated a room dedicated to her memory.  Mahadevi Verma (1907-87), was educated in Allahabad, where she founded the ‘Prayag Mahila Vidyapitha’, promoting education for girls.  An active freedom fighter, Mahadevi Verma is regarded as one of the four pillars of the great Romantic movement in modern Hindi poetry, Chayavada, the remaining three being Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Jaishankar Prasad and Sumitranandan Pant.  She is renowned for her book of memoirs, Atit Ke Chalchitra (The Moving Frames of the Past) and Smriti Ki Rekhayen (The Lines of Memory).  Her poetic canvas boasts Dipshikha (The Flame of an Earthen Lamp, 1942), a book comprising fifty one lyrics, all which carry maturity of expression and intense mystical quality.  Some of her other famous publications are Nihar (1930), Rashmi (1932), Neerja (1934), and Sandhya Geet (1936).  Of her four prose woks, Shrinkhala ki Kadiyan deals with the plight of Indian women.  Her reflections on art and literature included in Sahityakaar ki Astha, evince a highly cultivated aesthetic sensibility, firmly rooted in the permanent values of life.
In 1935, she was appointed Honorary Editor of the famous Hindi monthly magazine Chand.  She was honoured with the Padma Bhushan by the President of India.  She died on 11th September, 1987.
Works: Mahadevi is considered to be one of the four major poets of the Chhayavaadi school of the Hindi literature, others being Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Jaishankar Prasad and Sumitranandan Pant.  She was also a noted painter.  She drew a number of illustrations for her poetic works like Deepshikha and Yama.
Poetry: Her poems have been published under a number of other titles as well, but they contain the poems from these collections only.  They include: 1. Neehar (1930), 2. Agnirekah (1990, published after her death), 3. Pagal hai kya? (1971, published in 2005).
Awards and honours: Mahadevi Varma’s creative talents and sharp intellect soon earned her a prominent place in the Hindi Literary world.  She is considered among the four pillars of the Chhayavaad movement.  In 1934, she received Sekseriya Puraskar from the Hindi Sahitya Sammelan for her work, Niraja.  Her poetry collection received the Jnanapith Award, one of the highest Indian literary awards.
She also Honored with “Proud Past Alumni” in the list of 42 members, from “Allahabad University Alumni Association”,

Ganesh Vasudev Mavlankar Indian Freedom Fighter

Ganesh Vasudev Mavlankar Indian Freedom Fighter
Ganesh Vasudev Mavlankar was an Indian freedom fighter and the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India.  Mavlankar hailed from Marathi background but lived and worked in Ahmedabad, capital of Gujarat.  He was a colleague and close friend of Sardar Vallabhabhai Patel.  Mavlankar joined the Indian Independence Movement with the Non-cooperation Movement.  Although he temporarily joined the Swaraj Party in the 1920s, he returned to Mahatma Gandhi and the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.  In 1952, after the first general elections in independent India, G.V. Mavlankar was elected the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.  He would serve many years in the Parliament of India.

Govind Vallabh Pant Indian Freedom Fighter

Govind Vallabh Pant Indian Freedom Fighter
Date of birth: 10th September, 1887 and Date of death: 7th March, 1961
Govind Vallabh Pant was an Indian freedom fighter, an important political leader from Uttar Pradesh and of the movement to establish Hindi as the national language of India.  As a lawyer in Kashipur, Pant began his active work against the British Raj in 1914, when he helped a local parishad, or village council, their successful challenge of a law requiring locals to provide free transportation of the luggage of travelling British officials.  In 1921, he entered politics and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.  In 1930, he was arrested and imprisoned for several weeks for organize.

Jayaprakash Narayan Indian Freedom Fighter Political Leader

Jayaprakash Narayan Indian Freedom Fighter Political Leader
Date of birth: 11th October, 1902 and Date of death: 8th October, 1979
Jayaprakash Narayan, widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader.  He was one of the few leaders of modern Indian who fought for its independence and took part in active politics for a long time after it became independent.  He was born in Sitabdiara, village in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh, and did his higher studies including his Ph.D in politics and sociology in the United States.  He adopted Marxism while studying at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin under Edward Ross; he was also deeply influenced by the writings of M.N. Roy.  After returning to India, JP joined the Indian National Congress on the invitation of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929; M.K. Gandhi would be his mentor in the Congress.  During the Indian independence movement, he was arrested, jailed, and tortured several times by the British.  He won particular fame during the Quit India Movement.  JP married Prabhavati Devi, a freedom fighter in her own right and a staunch disciple of Kasturba Gandhi in October, 1920; she stayed in Sabarmati ashram while JP was abroad and became a devoted Gandhian; she often held opinions which were not in agreement with JP’s views, but JP respected her independence.  She was the older daughter of Brajkishore Prasad, one of the first Gandhians in Bihar and one who played a major role in Gandhi’s campaign in Champaran.  After being jailed in 1932, for civil disobedience against British rule, he was imprisoned in Nasik Jail, where he met Ram Manohar Lohia, Minoo Masani, Achyut Patwardhan, Ashok Meta, Yesuf Desai and other national leaders.  After his release, the Congress Socialist Party, a left-wing group within the Congress, was formed with Acharya Narendra Deva as President and JP as General Secretary.  During the Quit India movement of 1942, when senior Congress leaders were arrested in the early stages, JP, Lohia and Basawon Singh (Sinha) were at the forefront of the agitations.  Leaders such as Jayaprakash Narayan and Aruna Asaf Ali were described as “the political children of Gandhi but recent students of Karl Marx”.
JAYAPRAKASH NARAYAN:

Date of Birth: October 11, 1902 and Date of death: October 8, 1979
Jayaprakash Narayan was born on October 11, 1902, in Sitabdiara, a village on the border of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. His father Harsudayal was a junior official in the Canal Department of the State government and was often touring the region. Jayaprakash, called Baul affectionately, was left with his grandmother to study in Sitabdiara.
Jayaprakash was married to Prabhavati, daughter of lawyer and nationalist Brij Kishore Prasad in October 1920. Prabhavati was very independent-minded and on Gandhiji’s invitation, went to stay at his ashram while Jayaprakash continued his studies.
While Jayaprakash became a believer of the Communist school of thought, Prabhavati became an ardent Gandhian. He respected Prabhavati’s choice and did not force her to change her views. In 1929, both Jayaprakash and Prabhavati left for the Congress session at Lahore under Jawaharlal Nehru’s presidentship. There Nehru invited Jayaprakash to join the Congress, an offer that Jayaprakash gladly accepted. He began work in the Labour Research Cell of the Congress at Allahabad.
Jayaprakash was arrested for speaking against Indian participation in the Second World War in February 1940 and sent to Deoli detention camp in Rajasthan. Jayaprakash was appalled at the conditions in Deoli. He organized a hunger strike to protest the conditions in 1941. The Government immediately released him. He was again arrested in 1942 for participating in the Quit India movement. In November 1942, Diwali night, Jayaprakash along with five others escaped the prison by scaling a 17 feet high wall while the guards remained distracted by the festivities. A Rs.10,000 reward was offered for Jayaprakash’s capture, dead or alive. Jayaprakash escaped to Nepal and organized a guerilla army called the “Azad Dasta”. Jayaprakash and Ram Manohar Lohia were captured briefly but were rescued by the Azad Dasta members, who set fire to a hut to distract the guards. Both freedom fighters escaped to Bihar. Finally the British closed in on Jayaprakash in Amritsar when he was on his way to Rawalpindi to meet Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan. Jayaprakash was taken to Lahore Fort, notorious as a “Torture chamber” on September 18, 1943. 16 months of mental and physical torture followed. Jayaprakash was put in solitary confinement for the first month. Then came interrogations, physical torture and humiliation. Jayaprakash was released from jail on April 12, 1946.
Jayaprakash returned to a nation he could barely recognize. Talk of partition and riots between Hindu and Muslims dominated the atmosphere. Jayaprakash rushed to Bihar to assist in curbing the riots. He pleaded with the Congress Working Committee not to accept the partition plan.
On June 12, 1975, the Allahabad High Court held the Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, guilty on charges of corrupt practice in her election. Jayaprakash advised her to resign until her name was cleared by the Supreme Court. Instead, she clamped Emergency on June 26. Jayaprakash was arrested and sent to Chandigarh where he was kept prisoner in a hospital. “My world lies in shambles around me,” he cried. As his health worsened, he was moved to a hospital in Bombay.
Finally in January 1977, the Emergency was lifted. Fresh elections were declared. Under Jayaprakash’s guidance several parties united to form the Janata Party. The party incorporated all of Jayaprakash’s goals in its manifesto. Jayaprakash was weak and helpless by that time. He felt his work was done, but he had to sorrowfully witness the collapse of the Janata Party government. Jayaprakash died on October 8, 1979. People hailed him as Loknayak or leader of the people.

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Indian Political Leader

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Indian Political Leader
Date of birth: 25th September, 19016 and Date of death: 11th February, 1968
He was an eminent political personality and a profound philosopher.  He was an organiser par excellence and a prominent leader of Jan Sangh who maintained the highest standards of personal integrity.  He has been the source of ideological guidance and moral inspiration for the Bharathiya Janatha Party since its inception.  His treatise on ‘integral humanism’ is a critique of both communism and capitalism, advocating a holistic alternative perspective for political action and statecraft consistent with the laws of creation and the universal needs of the human race.
Panditji passed his intermediate exams with distinction in Pilani and left for Kanpur to pursue his under graduation and joined the Snatan Dharma College.  At the instance of his friend Balwanth Mahashabde, he joined the Rastriya Swayamsevak Sangh in 1937.  Later he moved for Agra where he joined with Nanaji Deshmukh and Bhau Jugade for RSS activities.  After that he worked full time for RSS and moved to Lakshmipur District of Uttar Pradesh as an organiser of RSS.  He established the publishing house ‘Rastra Dharma Prakashan’ in Lucknow and launched the monthly magazine ‘Rastra Dharma’ to propound the principles he held sacred.  Later, he launched the weekly ‘Panchajanya’ and the daily ‘Swadeshi’.
In 1950, Dr. Shyam Prasad Mukherjee, then Minister at the centre, opposed the Nehru- Liyaqat pact and resigned his Cabinet post and joined the opposition to build a common front of democratic forces.  Panditji organised a political convention in UP in 1951 and founded the state unit of the new party, Bharathya Jana Sangh.  Panditji was moving spirit and Dr. Mukherjee presided over the first All India Convention held on 21st October, 1951.  In 1968, Panditji assumed the post of president in the Jana Sangh.
On February 11, 1968, panditji boarded the first- class coupe of the Sealdah- Pathankot Express from Lucknow, bound for Patna.  His body was found Lying parallel to the railway tracks outside Mughalserai station in the early hours of the morning.

K M Munshi Indian Freedom Fighter Educationist

K M Munshi Indian Freedom Fighter Educationist
Date of birth: 30th December, 1887 and Date of death: 1971
Dr. Kaniyalal Maneklal Munshi founded of Bharathiya Vidya Bhavan along with his friends late in 1938.  Born in Broach came under the influence of Aurobindho while studying at Baroda college.  He enrolled himself initially as a pleader and later as an advocate in the Bombay Bar.  He first joined Annie Besant’s All India Home rule League in 1916 and later in Indian National Congress.  He married Lilavathi Sheth in 1926 after the death of his first wife, Atilakshmi Pathak, whom he married when he was just 13.
He was elected to the Bombay Legislative Council in 1927.  He took part in the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and was imprisoned for six months.  In 1932, he was sentenced to two year’s rigours imprisonment.  He elected to Bombay Legislative Assembly in 1937 and appointed as the Home minister in the first Congress Government.  He served as India’s Agent- General in Hyderabad when Nizam was trying to keep his state independent of the Indian Union.  He became member the Constituent Assembly in 1948.  He was Food and Agriculture minister of the Government of India in 1950.  He was Governor of Uttar Pradesh during 1952- 57.  He resigned from the Congress and became the Vice President of the newly formed Swatantra Party standing for free enterprises.  Till his death in 1971, he devoted all his energies to the building up of the Bhavan as the premier culture organisation of the country.

Madan Lal Dhingra Indian Freedom Fighter

Madan Lal Dhingra Indian Freedom Fighter
Date of birth: 1887 and Date of death: 17th August, 1909
Madan Lal Dhingra was an Indian political activist study in England, where he murdered Sir Curzon Wylie, a British MP, which is hailed as one of the first acts of revolution in the Indian independence movement in the 20th century.  Madan Lal Dhingra was born in 1887 to a prosperous Hindu family in the province of Punjab.  His father was a wealthy civil surgeon.  In 1906, Madan Lal departed for England to join the University College, London, to study Mechanical Engineering.  Dhingra’s family were loyalists of the British, and disowned him after his expulsion from college in Lahore owing to illicit political activities.  Dhingra had to work as a clerk, a tonga (rickshaw) puller, and a factory labourer.  Dhingra attempted to organise a union there, but was sacked.  He worked for sometime in Bombay, before acting upon the advice of his elder brother and going to England for higher studies.  He was supported by his elder brother and some nationalist activists in England.  Dhingra came into contact with noted Indian political activists Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Krishna Verma, who were impressed by Dhingra’s perseverance and intense patriotism, and turned his focus to the freedom struggle.  Savarkar believed in revolution by any means, and supposedly gave Dhingra arms training, apart from membership in a secretive society, the Abhinav Bharat Sanstha.  He was also a member of India House, the base for Indian student political activity.  During this period, Savarkar, Dhingra and other student activists were enraged by the execution of freedom fighters such as Khudiram Bose, Kannai Dutt, Satinder Pal and Kanshi Ram in India.  It is this event that is attributed by many historians as having led Savarkar and Dhingra scheme of exacting direct revenge upon the British.  On the evening of 1st July, 1909, a large number of Indians and Englishmen had gathered to attend the annual day function of the Indian National Association.  When Sir Curzon Wyllie, a prominent British Member of Parliament entered the hall with his wife, Dhingra fired five shots right at his face.  Cowasji Lalkaka, a Parsee doctor who tried to save Sir Curzon, died of Madan Lal’s sixth bullet, which he fired in self-defence because Lalkaka caught hold of him.  Dhingra did not resist arrest.  Dhingra was tired in Old Bailey Court on 23rd July.  He stated that he did not intend to kill Cowasji Lalkar, which was purely accidental.  Nevertheless, he was sentenced to death.  After the judge announced his judgement, Dhingra stated.  “I am proud to have the honour of laying down my life for my country.  But remember we shall have our time in the days to come”.  Dhingra was hanged on 17th August, 1909.

Mangal Pandey Indian Freedom Fighter

Mangal Pandey Indian Freedom Fighter
Year of birth: 1827 and Date of death: 8th April, 1857
Mangal Pandey was sepoy (en. soldier) in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) of the English East India Company.  He is widely known in India as one of its first freedom fighters.  The Indian government has issued an Indian Postage Stamp to commemorate him as a distinguished freedom fighter.  Beyond that his life and actions have also been adapted to the silver screen.
Mangal Pandey was born on 19th July, 1827 in the village Nagwa, of Ballia district in Uttar Pradesh of India to a Bhumihar Brahmin family.
He joined the East India Company’s forces in 1849, at the age of 22.  Pandey was part of the 6th Company of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry and is primarily known for his involvement in an attack on several of the regiment’s officers.  This incident marked an opening stage in what came to e known as the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 or the First War if Indian Independence.  It is said (by whom?) that Pandey was a devout Hindu who practiced his religion diligently.
Some of the sepoys of the quarter-guard then advanced and struck at the two prostrate officers.  They then threatened Shaikh Paltu and ordered him to release Pandey, whom he had been vainly trying to hold back.  However, Paltu continued to hold Pandey until Baugh and the sergeant-major had had time to get up.  Himself wounded by now, Paltu was obliged to loosen his grip.  He backed away in one direction and Baugh and Hewson in another, while being struck with the butt ends of the guards’ muskets.
Mangal Pandey’s execution was scheduled for 18th April, but was carried out ten days before that date.  Jemadar Ishwari Prasad was executed by hanging on 21st April.
The Indian historian Surendra Nath Sen notes that the 34th B.N.I. had had a good recent record and that the Court of Enquiry had not found any evidence of a connection with unrest at Berhampur involving the 19th B.N.I. four weeks before (see below).  However, Mangal Pandey’s actions and the failure of the armed and on-duty sepoys of the quarter-guard to take action convinced the British military authorities that the whole regiment was unreliable.  It appeared that Pandey had acted without first taking other sepoys into his confidence but that antipathy towards their British officers within the regiment had led most of those present to act as spectators rather than obey orders.
This section needs additional citations for verification.  Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.  Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.  (March, 2011).
The primary motivation behind Mangal Pandey’s behaviour is attributed to a new type of bullet cartridge used in the Enfield P-53 rifle which was to be introduced in the Bengal Army that year.
The 19th Bengal Native Infantry Regiment is important because it was the regiment charged with testing the new cartridges on 26th February, 1857.  However, right up to the mutiny the new rifles had not been issued to them, and the cartridges in the magazine of the regiment were as free of grease as they had been through the preceding half century.  The paper used in wrapping the cartridges was of a different colour, arousing suspicions.  The non-commissioned officers of the regiment refused to accept the cartridges on the 26th February.
The rifle used a Metford-Pritchitt cartridge that required the use of a heavy paper tube containing 2 ½ drams (68 grains) of musket powder and a 530-grain (34 g), pure lead bullet.  As the bullet incorporated no annular grease rings like the French and American minie ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was wrapped with a strip of greased paper to facilitate loading.  The cartridge itself was covered with a thin mixture of beeswax and linseed oil for waterproofing (although rumours abounded that it was beef or pork fat).
To load his rifle, the sepoy had to first bite off the rear of the cartridge to pour the powder down the barrel.  He then inverted the tube (the projectile was placed in the cartridge base up), pushed the end-portion into the muzzle to the approximate depth of the bullet and tore off the remaining paper.  The bullet could then be easily rammed on top of the charge.
Since cows are sacred to Hindus and pigs are strictly forbidden to Muslims, the Indian sepoys could be expected to have reservations about the cartridges.  Thus when the rumour that animal fat was being used began to circulate, it had a very damaging effect.  Other unsettling accounts started spreading.  For instance, it was thought that the British planned to make their sepoys outcaste in the society to force them to convert to Christianity.  Another rumour said the British had adulterated the wheat flour distributed to the sepoys with ground bone-dust of bullocks.
The government let itself be convinced and rescinded the order allowing the usage of ghee.  The attack by, and punishment of, Pandey is widely seen as the opening scene of what came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857.  He is referred as Shaheed (Martyr) Mangal Pandey in India.
The Government of India commemorated Mangal Pandey by issuing a postage stamp bearing his image on October 5, 1984.  The stamp and the accompanying first- day cover were designed by Delhi based artist C.R. Pakrashi.

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Indian Freedom Fighter

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Indian Freedom Fighter
Date of birth: December 25, 1861 and year of death: 1946
Pandita Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India.  He was born at Prayag (Allahabad) in an orthodox family.  He is known for achievements such as founding a university known Banaras Hindu University at Benaras.

Vinayaka Damodar Savarkar Indian Freedom Fighter

Vinayaka Damodar Savarkar Indian Freedom Fighter
Date of birth: 28th May, 1883 and Date of death: 1966
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, sometimes called as Veer Savarkar was an Indian freedom fighter and Hindu nationalist leader.  He was a great orator, prolific writer, historian, poet, philosopher and social worker who devoted his entire life to the cause of the Indian independence movement.  He is regarded by some as one of the greatest revolutionaries in the Indian Freedom Movement.  He was also one of the controversial figures of the National Movement.  Being a descendant of a line of Sanskrit scholars, Veer Savarkar took great interest in History, Politics and Indian Culture.  His book, ‘First War of Indian Independence Movement: 1857’, served as an inspiration for many freedom fighters.  Born in the village of Bhagur near Nasik, he was one among four children born to Damodar Pant Savarkar and Radhabai.  His initial education was at the Shivaji School, Nasik.  In 1902, he joined Fergusson College in Pune to study further.  In June, 1906, he received a scholarship and left for London to study law.
As a student, Savarkar was involved in the Swadeshi movement.  Later he joined Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s Swaraj Party.  When in London, he founded the Free India Society.  The Society celebrated important dates on the Indian Calendar including festivals and freedom movement landmarks.  In 1908, when he wrote ‘The Indian War of Independence, 1857’, the British Government immediately enforced a ban on the publication in both Britain and India.  Later, it was published by Madame Bhikaiji Cama in Holland and was smuggled into India to reach revolutionaries working across the country against British rule.  When the British Collector of Nasik, A.M.T. Jackson was shot dead by a youth, Savarkar fell under the net of the Britishers.  He was implicated in the murder citing his connections with India House.  A warrant was issued on 13th March, 1910, following which he was arrested in Paris.  He hatched a plan to escape at Marseilles which failed.  He was captured and brought to Bombay on the S.S. Morea, and imprisoned at the Yerawada Jail.  He was tried, and at the age of 27 years, sentenced to 50 years imprisonment at the infamous Cellular Jail in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  On 4th July, 1911, he was transported to the Andaman.  He appealed for clemency in 1911, and again in 1913, during Sir Reginald Craddock’s visit.  In 1920, many prominent freedom fighters including Vithalbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Tilak demanded the release of Savarkar and his brother in the Central Legislative Assembly.  On 2nd May, 1921, Savarkar moved to Ratnagiri Jail, and from there to Yeravada jail.  It was in Ratnagiri Jail that Savarkar wrote the book ‘Hindutva’.  The Hindu Mahasabha, under the presidentship of Savarkar supported the Quit India Movement.  His literary works in Marathi include ‘Kamala’ and ‘Mazi Janmathep (My Life Sentence).  Another important noted book was ‘Kala Pani’ (similar to life sentence, but on the island prison on the Andamans) which reflected the treatment of freedom fighters.

Vijayalaksmi Pandit Indian Politician

Vijayalaksmi Pandit Indian Politician
Date of birth: 18th August, 1900 and Date of death: 1st December, 1990
She was an Indian diplomat and politician.  She was the sister of Jawaharlal Nehru.  In 1921, she married Ranjit Sitaram Pandit.  She was the first women to hold a cabinet post.  In 1937, she was elected to the provisional legislature of the United Provinces and designated minister of local self- government and public health.  She held the latter post until 1939 and again from 1946 to 1947.  Following India’s Independence from British in 1947, she became India’s Ambassador to the Soviet Union.  She then became India’s ambassador to the United Nations.  She was the President of United Nations General Assembly during the year 1953, becoming the first women to hold that position.  She served as Governor of Maharastra from 1962 until 1964.  Pandit was a harsh critic of her niece, Indira Gandhi, after Gandhi became Prime Minister in 1966.  Her daughter Nayantara Sahgal is a well- known novelist.