Sunday, November 13, 2016

Dhurga raaju

Dhurga raaju was the 4th ruler in Kaakatheeya dynasty.
Dhurga raaju was the son of Betharaaju2.
Dhurga raaju's title - 'Chalamarthiganda'.
According to Kaajipet inscription Dhurga raaju donated Bethedhvara temple to  Raameshvara Bandit, a kaalamukheshvaraachaarya.


Vaidhyasechikareem served as the military general to the Kaakatheeya king Betharaaja2.

Raaghaveshvara Pandit

Raaghaveshvara Pandit was the teacher of Kakatheeya ruler Betharaaju 2.

Betharaaju II

Kakatheeya king.
3rd king in the Kaakatheeya dynasty.
Betharaaju-2 was the son of Prolaraaju1.
Betharaaju 2's titles are 1. Vikram's chakri.
2. Thribhuvana malla'.
He got inscribed the 'Kaajipet' inscription.
According to Kaajipet inscription, he is a great warrior.
Betharaaju 2 constructed ' Betheshwara Temple.
Raageshwara Pandit was the teacher of Betharaaju2.
Vaidhyasechi Kareem - was the military general of Betharaaja2.

Saturday, November 5, 2016

Venkateshwara Rao Telluri


Phone Number : +91 9885864545 (Mobile)

Room No. 15,
N R S Hostel,
Osmania University,
Hyderabad -500 007
Email ID:

Permanent Address :
Kappalabandam Village,
Kallur Mandal,
Khammam District,
Telangana – 507 209

* Working as Assistant Professor (contract) in History at P. G. College, (Osmania University), Secunderabad since 1 st September, 2013.
* Worked as Assistant Professor (part-time) in History at P. G. College, (Osmania University), Secunderabad from 1 st October, 2012 to 30 th March, 2013.

* Working as Academic Counselor in History for M.A. classes of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University study centre at S.P. College, Padmarao Nagar, Secunderabad from January, 2013.

* Worked as Academic Instructor in History for both UG & PG classes at PGRR Centre for Distance Education, Osmania University since 2011.

* Worked as Project Fellow at the Department of History, Arts College, Osmania University, Hyderabad on UGC-DSA project “Socio-Economic Transition in Telangana: Regional Change in Historical Perspective: Gender, Identity and Migration from 2 nd September, 2011 to 30 th March, 2012.


* Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in History: Obtained PhD Degree from Osmania University on 17.06.2010 on “The Political and Cultural Contribution of Lambadas: A Case Study of Khammam District in A.P., 1948- 2001 A.D.”

* Post Graduation: Master’s Degree (M.A.) in History from University of Hyderabad in the year 2001. Aggregate: 57.25%.

* Under Graduation: Bachelor of Arts from Nagarjuna University in 1999. Institute: Andhra Pradesh Residential Degree College (APRDC), Nagarjuna Sagar, Guntur District. Aggregate: 56.08%.

* Higher Secondary Education: Passed 10+2 under CBSE pattern in 1996. Institute: Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Nizam Sagar, Nizamabad (Dist.), Andhra Pradesh. Major Subjects: History, Economics and Geography. Aggregate: 61.63%.

* Secondary Education: Passed 10 th standard under CBSE pattern in 1994. Institute: Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Paleru, Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh. Secured Percentage: 63.83%.

* Selected for PDF (Post-Doctoral Fellowship) for SC/STs by UGC for the academic year 2011-12 (No. F. /PDFSS-2011- 12-SC- AND-4322).

* Obtained NET (National Eligibility Test)’ June, 2012 conducted by UGC on 24 th June, 2012.  Obtained APSET (Andhra Pradesh State Eligibility Test)’ July, 2012 conducted by Osmania University on 27 th July, 2012.

* Achieved Junior Research Fellowship (JRF), Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) for the academic years from 2006 to 2009 (Two and half year).

* AS COURSE WRITER: Bharatha Desa Charitra- Sanskruthi (1526-1950), Telugu Medium (Instruction material), B.A., Second year, Prof. G. Ram Reddy Centre for Distance Education, 2012, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh-07.

* AS COURSE WRITER: Charitra Mariyu Bharathiya Sanskruthi (1526- 1950), Paper- II, Telugu Medium (Instruction material), B.A., Second year, Centre for Distance Education, Mahatma Gandhi University, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh, 2014.

* AS COURSE WRITER: New Text book for 10 th standard of Social studies for the academic year 2014-15, SCERT, Government of Andhra Pradesh, 2014.

* AS COURSE WRITER: New Text book for 10 th standard of Social studies for the academic year 2015-16, SCERT, Government of Telangana, 2015.

  1. Nagarjuna Konda: Bowgolika, Charitrika Mariyu Paryataka Konam, proceedings of 37th Andhra Pradesh History Congress (Sri Mandali Venkata Krishna Rao College of Education, Gandhi Kshetram, Avanigadda, Krishna District, A.P., held on 5th and 6th January, 2013)(ISSN 2320-057X).
  2. “Linguistic Smaller States” in Views of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: Is it Boon or Bane? (ed), Dr. Gali Vinod Kumar, a seminar proceeding on “Smaller States Social Justice” by P.G.College of Law, Osmania University, Asia Law House, Hyderabad, 2014. (ISBN 978-81-928563-9-1).
  3. Women in Indian National Movement (Unseen Faces), (Ed.), Dr. Indira Suryavanshi and Prof. Varalaxmi, R., Women in History, Festschrift in honour of Prof. I. Lakshmi, Department of History, Osmania University, Research India Press, New Delhi, 2014.  (ISBN 978-93-5171-006-6).
  4. Women Education in Telangana Region under Nizams and Social Change, a Two Day National Seminar on Education for Women: Empowering Strategies on 28th - 29th March, 2014, at Department of Education, Osmania University, Hyderabad.  (ISBN 978-81-926678-5-0).
  5. Tank Irrigation System in Telangana Region under Nizams: A Reference to Warangal Subah, Facets of Indian Society and Culture (Commemorative Volume in honour of Late Prof. Ramayanam Narasimha Rao), Department of History, Osmania University, Progressive Book House, Hyderabad, March, 2014.  (ISBN 978-81-921167-5-4).
  6. Role of Tribal Women in Telangana Armed Struggle, (Ed.), Prof. Arjun Rao Kothadi and Venkateshwar Rao, Tribal Situation in India: A Comparative Perspective, Research India Press, New Delhi, 2013, (ISBN 978-81-89131-72-2).
  7. Empowering the Jogins: An Evil (Social) Custom in the Districts of Telangana, A National (UGC) Seminar held at Sree Kandukuri Vereshalingam Theistic College, Rajamundry, Andhra Pradesh on 18th and 19th March, 2012(ISBN 978-93-5067-756-8).
  8. Role of Press: The Mobilisation of Mass in Telangana Armed Struggle, Proceedings of 36th Session of Andhra Pradesh History Congress, (Andhra Pradesh History Congress, CSR Sharma Degree College, Ongole, A.P., held on 7th–8th Jan, 2012)(ISSN 2320-057X).

  1. Films and Their Censorship in British India, New International Emergent Research Journal (NIERJ), Vol. 1, Issue. 1, Prathmesh Prakashan, Aurangabad, October, 2014, (ISSN 2393-834x) and (Global Impact Factor is 0.00)
  2. Welfare Programmes of Christian Missionaries: Their Mobilisation of Untouchables in Coastal Andhra, Parishodhan Global Research Journal, a Quarterly Multi-disciplinary International Refereed Journal, No. 2, Vol. 02, April- June, 2013, (ISSN 2278-1536).
  3. History of Physical Education in India: From Ancient to Post Independence Period, New International Reliable Research Journal (NIRRJ), Vol. 12, Prathmesh Prakashan, Aurangabad, March, 2014, (ISSN 2320-9410) and (Global Impact Factor is 0.186)
  4. Women and Journalism: Prominent Journals of Women in Twentieth Century Andhra, New International Reliable Research Journal (NIRRJ), Vol. 11, Prathmesh Prakashan, Aurangabad, February, 2014, (ISSN 2320-9410) and (Global Impact Factor is 0.186).
  5. Ancient Indian Warfare: Usage of Weapons, Tools and Various Equipments, New International Reliable Research Journal (NIRRJ), Vol. 10, Prathmesh Prakashan, Aurangabad, January, 2014, (ISSN 2320-9410) and (Global Impact Factor is 0.186).

  1. Banjaras and Gypsies: A Comparative View, Accepted for Publication in a Journal ‘International Journal of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, Hyderabad’, Vol. I, First Issue, Hyderabad, 2013.
  2. Role of Dalits in Telangana Armed Struggle: Their Political, Economical and Cultural Transformation, (Ed.) Dr. Jayaram Gollapudi, Depressed Class and their Cultural Transformations, South India, 1912-2012, Vol. I, Hyderabad, 2013.

  1. The Role of Lambadas of Maidam Chervu Thanda in Peasant Revolt Against Mundrai Dora during Telangana Armed Struggle, 1940-48: A Review, Presented in an International Seminar held at Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad on `Hyderabad State: Society, Economy and Politics, 1724 to 1956’ on 17th -19th December, 2010.


  1. Women and Nationalism: An Unseen Woman in Indian National Movement presented at the Seminar on ‘Contribution of Revolutionary Movement in Indian Freedom Movement’ held on 25th and 26th February, 2014 at Daund Taluka Arts and Commerce College, Daund, Maharastra.
  2. Cultural Contribution of Banjaras/Lambadas: Some Interpretations, presented in a Two-Day National Seminar (UGC) on ‘Trends in History- A New Perspective’ held on 21st and 22nd February, 2014 at Department of History, Giriraj College, Nizamabad, Andhra Pradesh.
  3. Gondi Language and Script: An Analysis, A National (ICHR) Seminar held at Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad on 28th  and 29th June, 2013.
  4. Madiga: Father of Leather Technology in India, National (ICHR) Seminar held at Kakatiya University, Warangal, A.P., on 17th and 18th March, 2013.
  5. Empowering the Jogins: History of an Evil Custom in the Districts of Telangana, A National (UGC) Seminar held at Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad on 28th and 29th May, 2012.
  6. Lambadas and their Unique Culture: The Dress Pattern, Festivals and Dhavalo, A National (UGC) Seminar held at Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad on 29th and 30th March, 2012.
  7. Banjaras: The Migrants of North to South in India, A National (UGC) Seminar held at Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad on 26th and 27th August, 2011.
  8. Role of Lambada Women in Telangana Armed Struggle, 2nd Telangana History Congress, Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad, held on 14th and 15th March, 2009.
  9. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar`s Influence on Untouchables Towards Buddhism, National (UGC)  Seminar held at Kakatiya University, Warangal, A.P on 30th – 31st March, 2009.
  10. Ambedkar`s Ideology: The Similarity between Buddhist Dhamma and Marxist Views, National (UGC) Seminar held at Kakatiya University, Warangal, A.P. on 30th  and 31st  March, 2009.
  11. Urban Glimpses of Mughal India: A Historical Study on City Agra during 16th and 17th Centuries, National (UGC) Seminar, held at Department of Economics, College for Women, Koti, Osmania University, Hyderabad on 24th and 25th January, 2009.
  12. Lambadas: Identity, Migration and their Service in the Armies of Deccan, National (UGC) Seminar, held at Department of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad on 16th and 17th December, 2008.

Friday, November 4, 2016

How India got its name?

How India got its name? How the name India is derived?
Some say that India means Independent Nationa Declared in August. But it is not true. Even far before the advent of Britishers to Bharat, Bharat was known as India. One example for this is 'East India Company'.
India got its name due to the river Indus.
Aryans called it 'Sindhu'.
Iranians / Persians called it  Hind. (Hindoosthan).
Greeks called it 'Indos' (India)
Romans called it 'Indus" (India).
కొందరు ఫెస్ బుక్, వాట్సప్ పిచ్చోళ్ళు భారతదేశానికి ఇండియా య INDIA అనే పేరు రావడానికి కారణం ఆగస్టులో స్వతంత్రత ప్రకటించిన దేశం అనే అర్ధం వచ్చేలా Independent Nationa Declared in August అని చెప్తారు. కానీ అది శుధ్ధ తప్పు. ఇండియా అనే పేరు బ్రిటీష్ వారు రావడానికి ముందు నుండీ ఉన్నది. బ్రిటీష్ వారు East India Company ని December 31, 1600లో స్ధాపించారు. ఇండియా అనే పేరు మనకు స్వాతంత్ర్యం రాకముందు నుండి ఉందని దీన్నిబట్టి అర్ధం అవుతంది కదా. ఇపుడు ఇండియా అనే పేరు ఎలా వచ్చిందో చూద్దాం. ఇండియా అనే పేరు రావడానికి కారణం సింధూ నది. ఆర్యులు సింధూ అని పిలిచారు. ఇరానియన్లు య పర్షియన్లు సింధూ నదిని హింద్ గా పిలిచారు. అందువల్లే హిందూస్ధాన్ అయింది. ఇక్కడి మతం హిందూ మతం అయింది. గ్రీకులు సింధూ నదిని ఇండోస్ గా పిలిచారు. (India) Aryans called it 'Sindhu'. రోమన్లు దాన్ని ఇండస్ గా పిలిచారు. అదే కాలక్రమంలో ఇండియా అయింది.

Dharma Mahaamaathras

Dharma Mahaamaathras - Officers appointed by Ashoka Maurya to spread the spirit of morality and justice all the human beings of the world. Ashoka Maurya appointed Dharma Mahaamaathras in his 14th regnal year and this information was mentioned in his Major Rock Edict 5. Ashoka himself went from place to place to spread Dharma, Justice. His own brothers, sisters, sons and daughters went to various places to spread Dharma / Dhamma / Justice. / Sense of morality / Compassion towards all living creature / Religious tolerance.

Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka Maurya and its content

Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka Maurya and its content
MRE 1 - Banned animal sacrifice and festive gatherings. Royal kitchen has permission

to sacrifice 3 animals per day. (2 Peacocks and 1 deer.)
MRE 2 - Welfare measures and Prayantas. Construction of Tanks, Roads, planting

trees (saplings), Medicinal plants, medical missionary. South Indian kingdoms, Chodas - Northern. Tamilnadu, Pandhyas - Southern Tamilnadu, Keralaputras, Satyaputhrras, Tamra parni - Srilanka)) were mentioned in this inscription.

MRE 3 - Be liberal to Brahmins and Sramanas. Spend moderately. Quinquennial tours (tour for every 5 years). Yukthas, Rajukas and Pradeshikas were mentioned in this inscription.
MRE 4 - Non violence towards animals and birds. Bherighosha is replaced with Dhammaghosha.
MRE 5 - Humane treatment to slaves and prisioners. Ashoka Maurya appointed Dharma Mahaamaathras in his 14th regnal year.
MRE 6 - Gives details about Maurya administration and its efficiency. "Savve Janaa Paja Mama" is the motto of Ashokan administration. "Savve Janaa Paja Mama" means all the people are my children. This is the aim and epitome of Ashoka Maurya's administration.
MRE 7 - Tolerance among various sects. There were 50 sects during that period.
MRE 8 - Instead of 'Vihaara Yaathras', tours for pleasure, Ashoka undertook 'Dhamma Yaathras', tours to spread justice. Due to the Dhamma Yaathras Ashoka came in touch with rural areas. During his 10th regnal year Ashoka paid a visit to Gaya.
MRE 9 - Shun rituals, ceremonies and adopt Dhamma.
MRE 10 - Defined Dhamma in his Major Rock Edict X. Major PE II also defines Dhamma. Ashoka had no desire for fame and glory. He desired only Dhamma Vijaya.

MRE 11 - Dhamma brings gains and merits in present and next life.

MRE 12 - Tolerance among various sects. Ashoka's respect to various sects. Important principles of Dhamma. Sushrusha. Apachitr. Sampratipatti. Avihimsa Bhuthaanam. Apavyavata. Apabhandhajaatha. Satyam. Mardhavam. Dhammarati. Bhaavashuddi.

MRE 13 - Longest and most important Major Rock Edict is 13th MRE. Ashoka mentioned Kalinga war in this edict. 5 Helenic kingdoms and thir kings were mentioned in this edict. Antiyoka - Syria. Antikin - Macedonia. Alikasudra - Epirus. Thurayama - Egypt. magas - Cyrene.
Prathyanthas - Boarder state - Chodas (Nabakas), Pandyas (Purundas), Bhojas (Kambhoja), Pitinikas (Tamraparni).

Dhamma Ghosha

Dhamma ghosha means Siren of Dharma. Justice. Ashoka Maurya in his Major Rock Inscription 4 mentioned this. He replaced Bherighosha, siren of war, with Dhamma Ghosha, Siren of Dharma.
Dhamma = Dharma = Justice.

Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka Maurya and its content - Read


Bherighosha means war siren. Ashoka Maurya in his Major Rock Inscription 4 mentioned this. He replaced Bherighosha, siren of war, with Dhamma Ghosha, Siren of Dharma.
Dhamma = Dharma = Justice.

Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka Maurya and its content - Read 

Thursday, November 3, 2016

Ajitha Kesakambali

Ajitha Kesakambali - pinyin: Wúshèng Fàhè) was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC. He is considered to be the first known proponent of Indian materialism. He was probably a contemporary of Buddha and Mahavira. It has frequently been noted that the doctrines of the Lokayata school were considerably drawn from Ajita's teachings.  (This is from wiki)

Ajitha Kesakambali was one of the 62 ancient Indian philosophers who existed during 6th century B.C. Earliest traces of Indian materialism  are found in his ideology. Charvaka's Lokayutha philosophy drawn inspiration from Ajitha Kesakambali's philosophy. He was contemporary of Mahavira, Buddha and Maccali gosala puthra.   (Above information in our own words.)

Sona and Utthara

Sona and Utthara are the important members of Ashoka's family.
Sona and Uttara propogated Dhamma in Burma.

Ashoka Maurya

Ashoka -
Born: August 304 BC, Pataliputra
Died: 232 BC, Pataliputra
Ruled between 268 B.C. to 232 B.C.
Mauryan dynasty king. Greatest king of India.
Ashoka is a Philosopher king.
His titles are Devanam piya, Piya Dassi.
Son of Bindhusara.
Grand son of Chandraguptha Maurya, who was a founder of Mauryan Dynasty.
After the Kalinga war, Ashoka changed his mind and shifted to the path of peace.

He decided to establish peace by inculcating the spirit of Dhamma instead of waging

wars. Ashoka appointed Dhamma Maha Mathras to spread Dhamma all over the

world. This strategy surely showed resuts. We don't see any revolts or invasions

during the lifetime of Ashoka. Ashoka himself moved from palce to place spreading

In Major Rock  Edict XII - (MRE-XII) - we find the principles of Ashoka's

"If you follow Dhamma / Dharrma, you attain Swarga"_ Ashoka.
Every Ashoka inscription start with the phrase "Devaanaam Piya"
Buddhist doctrines 'Ashtaanga Maarga' and 'Arya Sathya' were never found in

Ashokan inscriptions.
Asshoka's Dhamma is a secular code of conduct. There is no room for rituals in

Sona and Uttara are th important members of Ashoka's family.
Sona and Uttara propogated Dhamma in Burma.
Majjima propogated Dhamma in Himalayan Region.
Mahadeva propogated Dhamma in Himalayan Region.
Rakkitha propogated Dhamma in Yona. Yona may be a Greek settlement in Inda.
Mahaadhamma Rakkitha propogated Dhamma in Maharashtra.


Dionysus -  - Greek ambassador at Bindhusara's court.


Daimachus - Greek ambassador at Bindhusara's court.


Megasthanese - Greek ambassador at Chandhra Guptha Maurya's court.
Author of famous book - 'Indica'.


Sanghamithra - Daughter of Married Agnibrahma of Srilanka.


Chaarumathi - Daughter of Asoka. Chaarumathi used to preach Dhamma / Budhism

in Nepal. Over there she married Devapala and settled in Nepal.


Tiwaara - Son of Ashoka and Karuvaki. According to Fahien, Tiwara was the

Governor of Taxila.


Karuvaaki - Only wife of Ashoka who was mentioned in inscriptions. Karuvaki is the

mother of Tiwara.

Vidisha Mahadevi

Vidisha Mahadevi - Ashoka's concubine. Vidisha Mahadevi is from Ujjain. Vidisha

Mahadevi is mother of Mahendra and Sandghamithra.

Tissa Rakshitha / Tissa Rakka

Tissa Rakshitha / Tissa Rakka - Wicked queen of Ashoka, who poisoned Bodhi tree.

Original Bodhi tree under  which Buddha attained knowledge is dead. One of its

brach in live in Srilanka.


Padmavathi - Ashoka's wife. Mother of Kunala, the immmediate successor of



Asandhimithra - Ashoka's Pattamahishi. (Pattamahiishi = Chief Queen who has the

right to take seat beside king on important / festive occasion.)

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Omphis Ambhi

Omphis - King of Taxila, present day Baluchisthan region.
Greeks gave their own style of names to Indian kings and other persons.
They called / recorded the name of Taxila king 'Ambi' as 'Omphis'.

Alexander the great

Alexander 334B.C. - 323 B.C.
S/O Phillip.
Student of Aristotle.
Alexander conquered Europe, Egypt (in Africa ), Babilonia (Bagdad) and Persipolis.
From 329B.C. - 330 B.C. Alexander stayed in Persia.
Omphis - King of Taxila. Know more about Omphis.
Omphis invaded Alexander to invade on India. Ambi / Porus was not at good terms

with Porus / Purushothama, who was a king of a region between Jheelum and


Battle of Hydasphus was fought between Porus and Alexander in 326 B.C.
Porus was defeated and pardoned.

Alexander died in 323 B.C. at Babilonia. Alexander died without any successor. After

Alexander 3 important Greek kingdoms were established. Read more.

3 important Kingdoms established after the death of Alexander

As Alexander died without a successor, 3 important Kingdoms established by Alexander's officers, after the death of Alexander
1. At Macidonia.
2. At Africa as Egypt it centre. Ptolomy was the ruler. Ptolemy Philadelphus.
3. Seleucid Empire in Asian provinces. It covered all the Asian provinces of Alexander. Seleucus Niketor was the ruler. Cyria was its capital.
Named as Seleucid Empire

Battle of Hydasphus

Battle of Hydasphus 326 B.C. -
Fought by Porus (Purushothama) X Alexander.
Porus was defeated and pardoned.


Greeks called Danananda as Agrams. Danananda's another name is Ugrasena.Nanda. 

Friday, October 28, 2016


Subhadrangi - Mother of Ashoka. According to 'Ashoka Vadana', Srilankan text.
According to 'Vamsatha Pakaasini', 'Dharma' is the name of Ashoka's mother.


Dharma -
1. Just. Related to moral values, accepted customs, traditions, justice.
2. Is a name. Mauryan Emperor Ashoka's mother name is Dharma. (According to 'Vamsatha Pakaasini', a Srilankan text.). According to 'Vamsatha Pakaasini', 'Dharma' is the name of Ashoka's mother.

City administration during Maurya Period as suggested by Kautilya in ArthaShastra

City / Municipal Administration during Mauryan Period
Administration as suggested by Kautilya in his Arthashastra.
These officers are equal to present day Principal Secretaries.

Akaradhyaksha -  Incharge of mining department.
Kanyadhyaksha - Mining
Akshapaladhyaksha - Accounts
Dhandanaagaradhyaksha -
Thattyadhyadhyaksha - Incharge of infantry.
Ashwadhyaksha - Horses
Hasthyadhyaksha - Elephants
Naavadhyaksha - Ships
Aayudhaagaaradhyaksha - Artillery
Devathadhyaksha - Temples
Go adhyaksha - Cows.
Kostagara adhyaksha - Whare houses and granaries.
Kupya adhyaksha - Incharge of forests.
Ganika adhyaksha - Incharge of brothel houses.
Thyuthaadhyaksha - Gambling Houses.
Vivithadyaksha - Incharge of Pasture Lands.
Koshadhyaksha - Incharge of Treasury.
Lakshanandhyaksha - Tankasalaadhyaksha
Lavanaadhyaksha - Incharge  of salt reaches.
Maanaadhyaksha - Land Survey and Keeper of times
Madradhyaksha - Incharge of passport department.
Pandyadhyaksha - State Trade and Commerce
Pauthvadhyaksha - Weights and measures
Samsthadhyaksha - Private trade and commerce
Naagavanaadhyaksha - Incharge of Elephants in forest zone.
Sitadhyaksha - Incharge of Agriculture
Sulkadhyaksha - Incharge of Customes duties.
Suradhyaksha - Incharge of Excise department.
Sutradhyaksha - Incharge of Textile Industry.
Sunaadhyasksha - Incharge of Slaughter houses.
Suvarnadhyaksha - Incharge of Gold and Jewellery.
Lohaadhyaksha - Incharge of Metal Industry.
Pattanaadhyaksha - Cities with docking facilities.

Minor Pillar Edicts of Ashoka

Minor Pillar Edicts of Ashoka
Minor Pillar Edicts
Sanchi - Saranath - Nigalisagar - Rumindai

Ashokan Pillars and the Capitols

Ashokan Pillars and the Capitols

Bull Capitol - Rampurva
Bull Capitol - Sravasti

Single Lion Capitol - Larianandan Garh
Single Lion Capitol - Lauria Araraj
Single Lion Capitol - Sankissa
Single Lion Capitol - Kapilavastu

Horse Capitol - Rumindai

Elephant Capitol - Sankissa
Elephant Capitol - Rajgir

Wheel Capitol - Sanchi

Saranatha Pillar and the details of its capitol -
Inverted Lotus, Ashoka Chakra and around that 4 animals Lion, Elephant, Horse,

Bull. (BHEL).
4 roaring lions and huge Ashoka chakra on thier shoulders.

Most of the Ashokan pillars are made of Red Sand Stone. For some pillars Buff

Coloured Sand Stone was used. Buff colour = Wheatish Colour. The stone was

brought from Chunar quaries, Uttar Pradesh and the pillars were carved out of them

at Taxila.

16 Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka and the places they were found

16 Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka were found at 8 places
Kalsi - Dehradun
Girnar - Gujarath
Sophara - Maharastra
Yerragudi - A.P.
Dhauli - Bhuvaneshwar
Jaugada - Ganjam
Manshera - North West Frontier Province.
Shabhajgarhi - North West Frontier Province.

Manshera and Shabhajgarhi are the ivillages and historic sites located in Mardan District in the North West Frontier Province of present day Pakistan.

Major Pillar Edicts of Ashoka and the Places they were found

Major Pillar edicts of Ashoka and the places they were found. Total 7 Major Pillar Edicts at 6 Places Allahabad - Kaushambi Delhi - Meerut Delhi - Topra Bihar - Laurianadangarh Bihar - Lauria Arayaj Bihar - Rampurva

Friday, October 21, 2016


Soma is a devine drink during Rg Vedic period.
Rg Vedic 'Chapters' are called 'Mandalas'.
There are total 10 Mandalas in Rg Veda.
Entire 9th Mandala is called 'Soma'.
Soma juice is made from the plant which is available on mount Mujavant, one of the Himalayan peaks.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

Various types of Lands during Vedic Period

Vedic Period-Types of Land

Kshethra- Most fertile land.
Khilva- Waste Land. (Khilva kshethra)
Gopada sara- Pasture land. (Route taken by cows)
Apratihata- Jungle land.
Vasti- Habitable land (Basti= Vasti)