Sunday, April 29, 2018

Mughal Empire Akbar 1556-1605


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Meaning of the Name Akbar is The Great.
3rd Mughal Emperor.
Greatest among the Mughal Emperors.
One of the greatest kings of India.
Akbar 1556 - 1605
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu Begam.
Akbar was born at Amarkot in 1542. Amarkot was a palace of a Hindu King named Rana Virsal Prasad.
 Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur when he was 14 years old.
 Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya.
Hemu, the PM of Muhammad Shah Adil of Bengal, was defeated. Hemu is considered the last Hindu
king of Delhi.
Conquered Malwa in 1561 defeating Baz Bahadur.
Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.
Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the army.
Mansabdar meant holder of a rank. Mansabdars were entrusted with the task of maintaining some army. In lieu of their salary a piece of land was given to them. The more trusted will be entrusted with a bigger rank / number of troops he should maintain.

Abu’l – Fazl, the Wazir of Akbar and author of the Akbamama an account of Akbar’s reign.
 Faizi was historian Abul Fazl’s brother in Akbar’s court. He was a poet composing in Persian and an all – round genius.

Tansen, believed to be one of the greatest musician of all times, was born in a Hindu family
in Gwalior.
Raja Birbal, alias Mahesh Das, was a courtier in the administration of Akbar.
 Raja Todar Mal was Akbar’s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the
kingdom. The revenue system introduced by Raja Todar Mal is known as 'Bandobasth system', largely inspired by Sharshah's Rytwari system / Sher Shah's revenue system.
Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha raja of Amber. He was a mansabdar and a trusted general
of Akbar.
Abdul Rahim Khan – e – Khana was a poet and the son of Akbar’s trusted caretaker, Bairam Khan.
After Bairam Khan was murdered, Bairan Khan’s wife became the second wife of Akbar, which
made Abdul Rahim Khan – e Khan his stepson.
 Faqir Aziao Din was one of Akbar’s chief advisors.
 Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbar’s chief advisors.

Ibadat Khana - Akbar's prayer hall. Here Akbar participated in religious discussion with the representatives of various religions.
Infalliable Decree - was issued by Akbar in 1579.
Akbar introduced a new religion named 'Din - e - Ilahi' in the year 1582.
This new religion was based on the principles of universal brotherhood and world peace. Wahadat ul wazood and Sul - i - Kul.
 

Reasons for Akbar's liberal religious outlook.
1. Akbar was born in a Hindu palace and he was raised by them for some years.
2. Akbar was a Sunni Muslim. Bairam Khan, Akbar's guardian was a Shia Muslim.
3. Akbar was the devotee of famous sufi saint, Shaik Salim Chisti. Chisti sufi order was a liberal one.
4. Most of Akbar's friends and wives were Hindus. Man Singh. Birbal / Mahesh Das. Raja Todar mal.
5. Abul Faizi, Abul Fazl were the followers of Sufism. They were Akbar's close associates.




Akbar (1556-1605) According to Abul Fazl and Badauni - the news of Humayun's death was concealed by Bairam Khan in order to prepare for the unopposed succession of Akbar; On 14th February 1556, Akbar ascended the throne, at the age 13 years; Then Bairam Khan resumed his activity against Sikandar Soor; Akbar then moved to Sirhind and Bairam Khan executed Tardi Begh Khan for his failure at Delhi; From Sirhind Akbar and Bairam Khan advanced to Delhi and faced Hemu (Hemu Shah) - adopted title Vikramaditya.


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On 5th November 1556, 2nd Battle of Panipat took place and Hemu captured by Shah Quli Khan Mahram; After the victory of Panipat, Akbar entered Delhi; In the meantime Sikander Soor defeated Khizr Khwaja Khan, and Sikander retreated; Finally on 25th July 1557, Sikander Soor surrendered; For 4 years (1556 - 59) Bairam Khan had bravely piloted the ship of Mughals against all odds; As early as May, 1557, Bairam Khan suspected that Akbar had begum to dislike him; Akbar was gradually coming under the influence of Atga Khail (foster relations) and Maham Anaga; Akbar hatched a conspiracy with Maham Anaga, to kill Bairam Khan; On 19th March, 1560, Akbar left Agra on the pretext of hunting and the conspiracy was drawn; Bairam Khan's family resided at Tabarhind (Modern Bhatinda); In 1560, Bairam Khan was killed;

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In 1561, Akbar undertook the conquest of Malwa; The Mughal army led by Adham Khan defeated the musician king Baz Bahur on 29th March 1561; Baz Bahadur fled and made an alliance with Mubarak Khan of Khandesh and Tufar Khan of Berar and they defeated the Mughal army; In 1562, Akbar sent his 2nd army under Abdullah Khan - an Uzbek, who compelled Baz Bahadur to flee to Chittor; Abdullah Khan took Mandu and Mughal rule was established in Malwa; From 1560 - 62, Akbar remained under the influence of Maham Anaga - foster mother of Akbar, Adham Singh and Shahibuddin; Akbar's Personality : - Akbar adopted Persian festival - NUROZ; He also adopted Persian Solar calendar; He conferred title to different people : - JAGAT GURU : - Jaina Saint, Hari Vijay Suri; JUG PRADHAN : - Jin Chandra Suri, Kawtar Sampradaya;

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Tony Monserreta, a Jesuits, came to his court; Nagada beating started during his reign; Jharonkha Darshan was started by him; Taslim-i-Chauth was also started by him; Famine relief started for the first time during 1594-98 famine; Tulsi Das, Birbal (Kavi Priya), Soor Das, Rahim, Raskhan, all flourished during his reign; He built important forts -Attock, Fatehpur Sikri and Allahabad fort; He made Fatehpur Sikri his capital after the victory of Gujarat; He abolished Sati and permitted widow remarriage. Fixed marriage age: -14 years for girls and 16 for boys; He also abolished slavery; Started Taccavi (Sondhar); Lots of Books were translated into Persian during his period: - Ibrahim Sirhindi - translated the Atharva Veda into Persian;

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Naqib Khan, Abdur Kadir Badauni and Sheikh Sultan - Mahabharat; Faizi-Lilawati, Nal Damyanti; Mullah Shah Md. -Rajtarangini; Maulana Shorre -Harivansh "Parv'; Abul Fazal -Panchtantara; Badauni - Ramayana; Makhmal Khan - Tajak; Maulana Shah -History of Kashmir; Zia Naqshbandi -Tutinama and Kok Shastra; He was tolerant. Purushottam Das and Devi explained about Hinduism; Maharaj ji Rana discussed about Zoroastrianism; Hari Vijay Rai Suri discussed about Jainism; Antonio Cabral was sent to Akbar as envoy; Akbar sent Hazi Abdullah as envoy to the Portuguese. Father Rudolph was also sent as envoy; In 1583, Leo Gremont was sent as an ambassador; In 1594, IIrd mission arrived under Jerome Zavier and Father Emmanuel Pinhiro; Benedict Degoes arrived at lahore on 5th May, 1595;
Akbar's conquests
1558- Ajmeer
1559 - Gwalior
1560 - Jaunpur
1561 - Malwa - Baz Bahadur
1562 - Amber (Jaipur) - Raja Barmal
1562 - Merta - Jimal Rathod
1564 - Garh Katana - Rani Durgavathi


More details at

Mughal Empire Babur 1526-1530

Babur
He was born on 14th February 1483;
Chagatai Turkish ruler;
He was 5th in descendent from Taimur and his mother was related to Changez Khan;
Mother's Name - Qutlug Nihgar Khanum, was the daughter of Yunus Khan;
Father's Name - Umar Sheikh Mirza - ruled the
kindgom of FARGANA;
In November 1497, he defeated Baisunqur Mirza and captured Samarkand.
He even lost Fargana, but in June 1498, he recovered Fargana and in November 1500 again
won Samarkand from Shaibani Khan - the chief of Uzbeks;
Again in 1501, he was badly defeated by Shaibani Khan and compelled to give his sister
Khanzada Begum in marriage. He became throneless and went to Taskent and took Shelter
under his maternal uncle Sultan
Mahmood Khan;
In June, 1503, Battle of Archiyan was fought and this gave a lesson to Babur that he could
have an east ward expansion;
In October 1504, he crossed Hindukush.
In Jan. 1505, he set out by Khyber pass for Peshawar and reached Kohat;
In September 1507, Babur crossed Indus advanced as far as Mandrawar in Lamghan;
In the meantime Shaibani Khan retired from Qandhar and Babur got tilte of Mirza (Prince)
and styled himself as Badshah of Kabul;
Humayun was born here only;
Babur again became active in 1518;
He conquered Bhira and at the Battle of Bhira gunpowder was used for the first time;
In 1519, he seized Bajaur. According to Babur it was his first real Indian invasion;
After Bajaur he captured Peshawar, defeated Yusufai Afghans;
In 1524, Babur led his 6th expedition on the invitation of Daulat Khan;
Babur had to return back in 1525 because of the Uzbek rebellion;
In his 7th attempt on 27th April, 1526, first battle of Panipat, he defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and
founded Mughal Empire in India;
In this war Babur took position in centre, right centre-chin Taimur Sultan and Left Centre
Mir Ali Khalifa, also assisted by Humayun and Khvajakilan.
Ibrahim Lodhi had 1 lac. Men and 1000 elephants while Babur had 24 000 men;
On 27th April, 1526, the Khutba was read in his name in Jami Masjid;
In the meantime Agra was captured by Humayun;
Humayun welcomed Babur and gave Kohinoor to him, which was captured from late Raja
Vikramjit of Gwalior;
Humayun captured Jaunpur, Gazipur, Kalpi and Gwalior;
Babur in December, 1526, narrowly escaped death from poison mixed in his food by Sultan
Ibrahim's mother through royal servants;
Next target was Rana Sanga-leaders of the Rajput confederacy;
Rana Sanga helped Babur in the war against Ibrahim Lodhi;
Babur declared his first Jehad against Rana Sanga and Rana Sangram Singh;
Finally on 17th March, 1527, in the Battle of Khanua, village some 37 miles west from Agra,
Rana Sanga was defeated;
Here he adopted a new strategy, also adopted in the 1st battle of Panipat-TULGAM (the
centre has a weak section, while the sides have a stronger one);
After Khanua, Babur assumed title 'Ghazi'"
On 7th April, 1527, he went to Mewat's capital Alwar and then to Malwa against Maidaui Rai
and captured parts of Chanderi; On 2nd February 1528, he sent an expedition under VIVAN
who captured Ayodhya and Lucknow and turned to Kanauj;
Here Mahmood Lodhi fought a war. On 6th May,1529, Battle of Ghhagra (Battle of Ganga),
he defeated the Afghans;
There after Babur sent Humayun to Samarkand;
Babur became ill and retired to his Jagir' at Sambhal and on 26th December.,
1530, he died in Agra;
His body was sent to Kabul;
His autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Baburi) was written in Turkish. He wrote Diwan in Turkish and
collection of Masnawis called MUBAYYAN - writer on law; He was one of the finest
Calligrapher and painter;

Mughal Empire Humayun 1530 -1556

Humayun (1530 -1556)
Born in 1508;
Had 4 brothers –
1. Mirza Suleman (Badakshan)
2. Kamarn (Kabul and Qandhar) outside India,
3. Askari in Punjab and Hindal in Sambal and
4. Alwar respectively;
The Mughal army consisted of Chagatai, Uzbek Mughal, Persian, Afghan and Hindustani
people;
Humayun's period can be divided into 4 phases:-
(i) Struggle-(1530-1540);
(ii) Exile-(1540-1545);
(iii) Return - (1545-1554);
(iv) Restoration - (1554-1556);
STRUGGLE (1530-1540)
He defeated the Afghans in the battle of Ghhagra;
In August, 1533, he laid the foundation of a new city in Delhi called DIN PANAH
(at the site of old Indraprastha). It was completed in 9 months;
In July 1534, Md. Zaman Mirza and Md. Sultan Mirza revolted;
In 1531 Bhadur Shah who became active in Malwa annexed it. He then captured Raisen,
Ranthambore, Chan-deri, Bhilsa and in January, 1533, Chittor. This alarmed Humayun'
By Mach, 1533, Bahadur captured Ajmer and Nagaur;
In November, 1534, Humayun moved from Agra to Gwalior and camped at Chittor but
Bahadur Shah did not come and he allowed Humayun to capture Chittor;
Rumi Khan was the master gunner of Bhadur Shah;
On 25th April, 1534, Bahadur Shah was defeated and he fled to Mandu'
On 13th June 1535, he captured Champaner;
He appointed Mirza Askari as the viceroy of Gujarat, made Ahmedabad his headquarters and
Hindu Begh was his advisor;
His success did not last long, as Askari did not prove to be effective. Gujarat was recaptured
by Malu Khan, governor of Bahadur Shah;
In 1533 - 36, Humayun remained in Gujarat, which proved to be blunder for him;
Humayun returned to Agra in August., 1536;
In July, 1537, he moved to Chunar, Rumi Khan now worked for him and Chunar was captured;
On the way to Gaur, Sher Shah cut off the communications in the Jharkhand area and the communication was lost between Mirza Hindal and Humayun;
His brothers Mirza Kamran was selfish, Yadgar Nasir Mirza incapable and Hindal was a rebel;
By the end of March 1539, Humayun set out from Bengal leaving Jahangir Ali Begh at Gaur;
On 26th June, 1539, the Mughal army was defeated;
In 1540, he was again defeated by Sher Shah at Kannauj because of the following:-
1. rebel of Hindal at Agra;
2. no help from the rulers of Malwa and Sindh;
3. the communication was cut of and no re-enforcement took place;
Humayun was compelled to leave India and his brother did not help him;
His plan to go to Badakshan through Kabul failed because of opposition from Kamaran;
Haidar Mirza made a suggestion to take shelter in Punjab Hills;
Peace negotiations with Sher Shah failed;
He offered Agra and Delhi to Sher Shah and retain Punjab to himself, but Sher Shahiefused;
Due to pressure from the Afghan he had to leave Lahore in October, 1540;
Finally on 26th January., 1541, he reached Sindh and incamped at Rohri - domain of Shah
Hussain Arghun;
Exile (1540 -1545)
Akbar was born on 15th October, at Amarkot;
Rana Virshal of Amarkot gave him shelter;
Wife of Humayun was Hamida Benu Begum;
Return (1545-1554)
After Humayun set out from his expedition in Sindh, along with 300 camels (mostly wild)
and 2000 loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar after crossing the Indus
River on 11 July 1543 along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire and overthrow
the Suri dynasty.
Among the tribes that had sworn allegiance to Humayun were the Magsi, Rind and many
others.
In Kamran Mirza's territory, Hindal Mirza had been placed under house arrest in Kabul after
refusing to have the Khutba recited in Kamran Mirza's name.
His other brother Askari Mirza was now ordered to gather an army and march on Humayun.
When Humayun received word of the approaching hostile army he decided against facing
them, and instead sought refuge elsewhere.
Akbar was left behind in camp close to Kandahar for, as it was December it would have been
too cold and dangerous to include the 14-month-old toddler in the forthcoming march
through the dangerous and snowy mountains of the Hindu Kush.
Askari Mirza found Akbar in the camp, and embraced him, and allowed his own wife to
parent him, she apparently started treating him as her own.
Once again Humayun turned toward Kandahar where his brother Kamran Mirza was in
power, but he received no help and had to seek refuge with the Shah of Persia.
Restoration (1545 -1556)
Humayun appointed Bairam Khan to the government of Qandhar and set out for Kabul;
He was helped by Mirza Hindal and Mirza Kamarn was forced to flee;
Humayun entered Kabul on 18th November, 1546, without any opposition;
In 1546, he campaigned Badakshan;
In 1549, he defeated Balkh and Uzbek;
In 1550, he again marched from Kabul:
On 25th December, 1554, he reached Peshawar and was joined by Bairam Khan;
In 1555, he defeated Machiwara (Ludhinana);
On 23rd July, 1555, he reentered Delhi;
Atga Khan, who took Hissar, had to surrendered;
On 24th January, 1556, he died leaving Bairam Khan as defacto;
The most disastrous campaign was Bengal
He died in Panch Mahal;
He wore black dress on Saturdays, yellow on Sundays and white on Mondays;

Monday, April 23, 2018

Danti durga

Danti Durga was the founder of Rashtakuta dynasty.
Titles: * Maharaajaadhiraaja..
 * Parama Maheshwara.
 * Parama Bhattaraka.
Dantidurga was the feudatory of Badami Calukya Vikramadithya II.
Danti Durga as a feudatory participated  in the Calukya x Arab and Chalukya X Pallava struggles.
Danti Durga became the administrator of Gujarath, Madhyapradesh and Berar.

Danti Durga made friendship with Pallavas, who are enemies of Badami Chalukyas.